What Should I Know?
Native Americans have inhabited these lands for at least the last 11,000 years. The Yuki, Nomlaki, Patwin, Pomo, Huchnom, Wappo, Lake Miwok and Wintum tribes all had a role in the pre-history and history of this region – one of the most linguistically diverse in California.
The Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument is dense with cultural sites ranging from seasonal hunting and gathering camps and mineral gathering sites in the high country, to major village sites with subterranean, earth-covered, round buildings in the lowlands. The area is rich with chert quarries, task sites where tools were re-sharpened, food sites dominated by grinding stones used for preparing acorns and small seeds, pitted boulder petroglyphs where stories were shared, and early trade routes that allowed interaction between the tribes.
In the early 19th century, Spanish and Mexican expeditions, as well as fur trappers for the Hudson Bay Company, explored this region. European-American settlement began during the 1840s gold rush, with some residents staying to operate small sawmills within the area’s dense forests. The restored 1860s-era Nye homestead cabin, the historic Prather Mill, and remnants of railroad logging are tangible reminders of these historic uses.
Around the turn of the 20th Century, mineral-laden waters and hot springs attracted visitors to resorts and spas advertising their therapeutic benefits. Observant visitors can still spot the remains of the foundation of the Bartlett Springs Resort.