Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Balsamorhiza sagittata



© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

McWilliams, Jack. 2002. Balsamorhiza sagittata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].


No entry


arrowleaf balsamroot

The currently accepted scientific name of arrowleaf balsamroot is Balsamorhiza sagittata Pursh (Nutt.) (Asteraceae) [21,30,42,118]. Arrowleaf balsamroot hybridizes with Carey's balsamroot (B. carreyana), Hooker balsamroot (B. hookeri), hoary balsamroot (B. incana), and toothed balsamroot (B. serata) [20].


No special status

Information on state- and province-level protection status of plants in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe.


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Arrowleaf balsamroot is found from the Sierra Nevada of California northward along the east side of the Cascade Range into British Columbia and eastward to Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Colorado.

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES25 Larch 
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES44 Alpine


2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

K005 Mixed conifer forest
K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K032 Transition between K031 and K037
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking
K050 Fescue-wheatgrass
K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
K052 Alpine meadows and barren
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K098 Northern floodplain forest

206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
209 Bristlecone pine
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
212 Western larch
216 Blue spruce
217 Aspen
218 Lodgepole pine
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
222 Black cottonwood-willow
235 Cottonwood-willow
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
247 Jeffrey pine

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass
102 Idaho fescue
103 Green fescue
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
108 Alpine Idaho fescue
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
210 Bitterbrush
212 Blackbush
216 Montane meadows
301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama
302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass
306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass
307 Idaho fescue-threadleaf sedge
308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass
309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass
310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama
311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue
317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue
320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
404 Threetip sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
407 Stiff sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
409 Tall forb
410 Alpine rangeland
411 Aspen woodland
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
416 True mountain-mahogany
418 Bigtooth maple
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
612 Sagebrush-grass

Tisdale [106] describes a bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata)/Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda)/arrowleaf balsamroot habitat type in west-central Idaho and adjacent areas.

Dealy [22] delineates an arrowleaf balsamroot phase to a curlleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius)/mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus) habitat type in eastern Oregon. Hoffman and Alexander [36] describe an arrowleaf balsamroot phase to a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/common snowberry (S. albus) habitat type in the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming.

An arrowleaf balsamroot-oneflower helianthella (Helianthella uniflora) subalpine forb community type is described by Gregory [31] in the Bridger-Teton National Forest in Wyoming.

In western Oregon Johnson and Simon [41] discuss an Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)-bluebunch wheatgrass/ arrowleaf balsamroot plant association in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Also in Oregon, Hopkins and Kovalchik [37] describe 2 plant associations on the Crooked River National Grasslands of Ochoco National Forest. Both are on steep canyon walls

West and others [119] use arrowleaf balsamroot to delineate a singleleaf pinyon (P. monophylla)/curlleaf mountain-mahogany/arrowleaf balsamroot subassociation in the pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands of Utah and Nevada. Also in Nevada, there is a singleleaf pinyon/curlleaf mountain-mahogany/longflower snowberry (S. longiflorus)/arrowleaf balsamroot community and a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda)/arrowleaf balsamroot community in the Coils Creek watershed [11].

Weaver [114] lists arrowleaf balsamroot as a dominant species in the fescue (Festuca) consociation and a secondary plant in the Agropyron consociation of the Agropyron- Festuca plant association in southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho.

Arrowleaf balsamroot is commonly associated with various sagebrush taxa including basin big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana), mountain silver sagebrush (A. cana ssp. viscidual), and threetip sagebrush (A. tripartita) [107]. Its occurrence in the big sagebrush habitats is dependent on annual precipitation (see Site Characteristics). Strong and others [102] list arrowleaf balsamroot as occurring in Wyoming big sagebrush (A.t. ssp wyomingensis)/bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type in Colorado.

In native stands of the northern Intermountain Region and the Pacific Northwest [113]arrowleaf balsamroot is commonly associated with Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, western (J. occidentalis) and Utah (J. osteosperma) junipers, ponderosa pine and the mountain shrub complex.


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Arrowleaf balsamroot is a cool-season [113], large, long-lived, native, perennial forb 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) in height [93]. Its fruit is a 4-angled, thickened, smooth, hairless achene [93,108,113]. Basal leaves are cordate to sagittate in outline with entire margins and wooly pubescence. They arise from a branched, underground caudex to form dense rosettes. Flowerheads are sunflower-like with strap-shaped ray flowers 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5 cm) long and tubular disc flowers [113]. Flowers are mostly solitary on long peduncles and the cauline leaves are mostly lanceolate, alternate, and much smaller than the basal leaves [83].

Roots: Arrowleaf balsamroot has a taproot that sometimes reaches a diameter of 4 inches (10 cm) and an extreme depth of 8.8 feet (2.7 m). Laterals seldom come off in the 1st 6 inches (15 cm) of soil. Below this depth numerous strong laterals occur, sometimes an inch (2.5 cm) or more in diameter. These laterals often run horizontally for 2 to 3 feet (0.6-1 m) before turning downward and may reach a depth of 5 feet (1.5 m). The taproot sometimes splits into nearly equal parts at a depth of about 3 feet (1 m). The tip of the taproot is often dead and if alive, is not very branched. The older part of the root is covered with a deeply furrowed bark. These furrows can be one-half inch (13 mm) deep [116].


Breeding system: No information

Pollination: No information

Seed production: The seed crop is usually good [93] and large quantities of seed can be produced if developing seedheads are not attacked by insects and are protected from grazing [100].

Seed dispersal: Arrowleaf balsamroot seeds are dispersed by wind [94] and animals [76].

Seed banking: Arrowleaf balsamroot seeds are not stored in the soil [94]. A 1996 study by Kitchen and Monsen [46], using arrowleaf balsamroot seeds collected in Idaho and Utah, found no evidence that arrowleaf balsamroot maintains a persistent seedbank.

Germination: Several studies have examined germination of arrowleaf balsamroot. Young and Evans [127] found germination without stratification was very low and erratic. A 12-week period of stratification was required for maximum germination. They chose 8 weeks at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5o C) as the pretreatment used for development of temperatures for a profile for arrowleaf balsamroot germination. Germination after this stratification period was only 50% of that obtained after 12 weeks of stratification, but was chosen because some seeds germinated during stratification. Optimum temperatures for germination were essentially optimum temperatures for stratification. 

Kitchen and Monsen [46] also conducted germination experiments on arrowleaf balsamroot and found for the few seeds that germinated without prechilling, germination was delayed for 21 to 28 days after imbibition and germinants "frequently" exhibited abnormal growth. They found no significant differences among germination percentages for nonstratified seeds. In contrast, 11 temperature regimes were optima for germination of stratified seeds. Warmest of these regimes was a constant 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10o C) and coldest was 32/41 degrees Fahrenheit (0/5o C). A temperature of 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35o C) reduced germination and a warm-period temperature of 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40o C) prevented germination [46].

The 3-month stratification requirement of arrowleaf balsamroot is long for many rangeland seedbeds. The only environment on sagebrush rangelands that might have a satisfactory stratification of arrowleaf balsamroot seeds is at the snow-litter-soil interface in sites with continuous snow cover for at least 3 months. This may explain the occurrence of dense communities of arrowleaf balsamroot on north-facing slopes where snowdrifts accumulate [46].

Stevens and others [99] tested germination of arrowleaf balsamroot seeds after storage in an open, unheated, and uncooled warehouse in Utah. While arrowleaf balsamroot does not persist in the soil seedbank [46,94], it apparently can be stored for up to 10 years and still be viable. Their results are:


Years of storage

2 3 4 5 7 10 15

Percent germination

Paradise Valley, NV 40 42 -- 37 20 1 0

Arrowleaf balsamroot has relatively large seeds, 1,850 to 3,000 per ounce (65-105/gram) [46]. The Davenport Seed Company [77] states there are 58,000 seeds per pound (127,600/kg).

Steele and Geier-Hayes [94], in a summary of successional studies of the major Douglas-fir habitat types in central Idaho, state arrowleaf balsamroot seeds germinate on bare soil in full sun.

Seedling establishment/growth: Kitchen and Monsen [46] found arrowleaf balsamroot seedlings in an experiment in Idaho and Utah grew slowly with low mortality. Wasser [113] found seedling vigor to be "rather weak" and that stands developed slowly.

Generally, new plants are slow to mature, requiring 3 to 4 years to flower on the best sites, and 7 to 8 years on lower precipitation sites [100].

Asexual regeneration: No information

Arrowleaf balsamroot is adapted to plains, valleys, foothills, and low mountain ranges. It occurs on open slopes and ridges throughout the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), oak (Quercus spp.) brush, ponderosa pine, and higher habitat types. It is found on well-drained soils in open, fairly dry situations, including south-facing slopes [93].

Precipitation: Arrowleaf balsamroot commonly occurs in various sagebrush habitats (see Habitat Types And Plant Communities). The following table shows precipitation ranges required for arrowleaf balsamroot to occur in big sagebrush habitats [107]:

Basin big sagebrush annual precipitation Mountain big sagebrush annual precipitation
9 to 13 inches 13+ inches 12 to 17 inches 17+ inches
no yes yes yes

However, Stanton [93] states arrowleaf balsamroot is often important on harsh sagebrush sites in Idaho that receive at least 9 inches (225 mm) precipitation, and Stevens [95] states arrowleaf balsamroot is adapted to basin big sagebrush sites in the 9-to 13-inch (225-330 mm) precipitation range in the Intermountain Range.

Arrowleaf balsamroot is strongly drought tolerant [113].

Soils: Arrowleaf balsamroot thrives in well-drained silty and loamy soils of the Palouse prairies and adjacent sagebrush-grass and open juniper and ponderosa pine zones of the northern Intermountain region. It is tolerant of moderately alkaline to weakly acidic and also weakly saline soils. It is intolerant of shallow water tables but is tolerant of briefly saturated soil conditions on imperfectly drained sites [113].

Elevation: Arrowleaf balsamroot occurs naturally between about 1,000 to 9,000 feet (305-2,743 m) [113]. Some elevations for individual states are:

Colorado 6,000 to 9,000 feet (1,829-2,743 m) [33]
Montana 3,500 to 7,000 feet (1,067-2,134 m) [54]
California 4,593 to 5,249 feet (1,400-1,600 m) [35]

Climax: Arrowleaf balsamroot is listed as part of the vegetation in a climax interior ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) community on the east slope of the Cascade Mountains, Blue Mountains and Northern Rocky Mountains [123]. An edaphic climax type in Colorado of Wyoming big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass includes arrowleaf balsamroot [102].

Mid-seral: In a study of grasslands of lower British Columbia, Tisdale [105] describes arrowleaf balsamroot as "found more commonly" in the mid-seral stage of needlegrass (Stipa spp.)-bluegrass as grasslands previously heavily grazed progressed to the climax stage of bluebunch wheatgrass-rough fescue (F. altaica).

Steele and Geier-Hayes [94] list arrowleaf balsamroot as an "important" species in the herb layer of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) habitat types in Idaho. The following table gives arrowleaf balsamroot's successional role in these habitat type-phases in Idaho:


Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir habitat type-phase Successional role
West-central Idaho elk sedge-(Carex geyeri) ponderosa pine MS
pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens)-ponderosa pine ms
grape (Mahonia repens)
white spirea (Spiraea betulifolia) - ponderosa pine MS
common snowberry- ponderosa pine (MS)
ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus)- ponderosa pine (MS)
Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum)-Rocky Mountain maple MS
East-central Idaho elk sedge-elk sedge ms
pinegrass-pinegrass ms
white spirea-pinegrass (ms)
common snowberry- common snowberry (ms)
ninebark- Douglas-fir ms
Rocky Mountain maple- mountain snowberry ms
MS = mid-seral; () = occurs in only part of the habitat; upper case = major species occurrence; lower case = minor species occurrence

Koniak [49] studied succession after fire in pinyon-juniper stands in the Great Basin. She found arrowleaf balsamroot present in various seral stages. Numbers in the following table represent percent of sites where arrowleaf balsamroot occurred (total number of stands measured not given):

Occurrence in various successional states

early early mid-stage mid-stage late mid-stage late
21 29 20 11 19

Early seral: Weaver [115], in an early (1914) study of plant succession in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, lists arrowleaf balsamroot as an "invader" in the transition from the bunchgrass-rimrock vegetation type to "prairie" vegetation at the top of canyons. For more information on early seral response of arrowleaf balsamroot see Plant Response To Fire.

Arrowleaf balsamroot begins growth and flowers early, but dates can vary.

Schmidt and Lotan [87] provide phenological data for arrowleaf balsamroot in the Northern Rocky Mountains based on unpublished studies. This table presents the phenology of arrowleaf balsamroot based on observations from 1928 to 1937:

East of the Continental Divide in Montana and Yellowstone National Park

first appearance leaves full grown flowers start flowers end fruits ripe seed fall starts leaves start to color/wither leaves withered first frost injury
average date 26 April 4 June 18 May 16 June 7 July 15 July 17 July 9 August 3 Sept.
earliest date 3 April 15 May 27 April 15 May 13 June 19 June 20 June 25 July 1 Sept.
latest date 13 May 2 July 18 June 2 August 2 August 7 August 13 August 16 Sept. 4 Sept.
standard error (days) 3 3 3 4 4 5 4 3 2
number of observations 16 16 18 18 15 10 17 56 2

Northern Idaho and west of the Continental Divide in Montana

average date 20 April 16 May 10 May 12 June 14 July 20 July 17 August 20 Sept. 1 Sept.
earliest date 8 April 2 May 2 May 1 June 15 June 10 July 1 August 16 August 5 August
latest date 2 May 1 June 16 May 20 June 16 July 1 August 25 August 5 October 21 Sept.
standard error (days) 2 3 1 2 3 4 3 5 8
number of observations 10 10 10 10 10 7 10 10 7

In a 6-year clipping study of arrowleaf balsamroot conducted at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station near Dubois, Idaho, Blaisdell and Pechanec [13] reported the following phenological data:

Growth stage

Average date

snow off 1 April
growth started 20 April
flower stalks appear 27 April
1st bloom 13 May
full bloom 28 may
blooming over 8 June
seed ripe 18 June
seed disseminating --
seed disseminated --
plant drying 21 June
plant dried  2 August


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Fire adaptations: Arrowleaf balsamroot regenerates from its caudex following fire [122]. Volland and Dell [111] describe the fire regeneration "mode" of arrowleaf balsamroot as windborne seed and rapid regrowth from a caudex.

Smith and Fischer's literature review [91] describes the fire survival "strategy" of arrowleaf balsamroot as regrowth from a surviving thick caudex and state it will survive even the most severe fire and increase in frequency and density after fire.

In a 1984 fire management action plan for Zion National Park in Utah, Mitchell [69] describes arrowleaf balsamroot fire survival strategy as "sprouting from a thick caudex."

Fire regimes: Smith and Fischer [91] place arrowleaf balsamroot within a fire group in northern Idaho that consists of warm, dry Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine habitat types. Before the 20th century, these sites were characterized by frequent underburns that eliminated most tree regeneration, thinned young stands, and perpetuated open stands dominated mainly by ponderosa pine. Studies in the South Fork Clearwater River report fire return intervals for stands in this fire group ranging from 3 to 39 years with a mean fire interval of 15 years [8]. In the River of No Return Area of Idaho, Barrett [7] provides the following information on fire regimes for stands in this fire group:

Location Fire interval range (years) Mean fire interval (years) Standard deviation
high elevation, 6,000 feet  8-51 22 4
low elevation, < 5,000 feet 3-30 15 2
Salmon River corridor 2-39 14 12

In eastern Idaho and western Wyoming, arrowleaf balsamroot is assigned to fire groups consisting of limber Pine (P. flexilis) habitat types, and habitat types supporting cool, dry Douglas-fir forests [14]. Arno and Gruell [3] reported a mean fire interval of 74 years for a southwestern Montana limber pine/bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type at a grassland ecotone. Keown [44] reported a fire-free interval of about 100 years for a similar Montana limber pine stand with a grass and shrub understory. Cool, dry Douglas-fir forests in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, probably experienced fires about every 50 to 100 years [60]. Douglas-fir adjacent to sagebrush steppe vegetation in both Jackson Hole and the valleys of northern Yellowstone National Park appear to have shorter fire-free intervals [14]. Houston [38] reported intervals of 20 to 25 years in cool, dry Douglas-fir in the Lamar, Gardner, and Yellowstone valleys over the past 300 to 400 years.

In Utah, Bradley and others [15] assign arrowleaf balsamroot to the fire group containing pinyon-juniper woodlands and montane maple-oak woodlands. On 4 study sites in southwestern Idaho, Burkhardt and Tisdale [17] found fire-free intervals to be 23, 18, 8 and 11 years. McKell [64] states composition of burned oak stands in Utah was found to resemble unburned stands within 20 years following fire.

Fire regimes where arrowleaf balsamroot is an important member of the community are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [73]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [86]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [3,17,68]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40**) [110,128]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii < 35 
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum < 10 [73]
curlleaf mountain-mahogany* Cercocarpus ledifolius 13-1000 [5,88]
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii < 35 to < 100 
blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima < 35 to < 100 
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum < 35 
western larch Larix occidentalis 25-100 [2]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 35 [73]
Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa 35 to > 200 
blue spruce*  Picea pungens 35-200 [2]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. < 35 [73]
Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. latifolia 25-300+ [1,2,84]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [27,29,43,73]
Jeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyi 5-30 
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [2,6,57]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [2,32,66]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (10**) [1,2]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [2,3,4]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. < 35 to 200 [23,112]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary

Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Arrowleaf balsamroot is top-killed by fire. Pechanec and others [75] classified susceptibility of forbs to fire by 3 damage classifications at Dubois, Idaho. Arrowleaf balsamroot was classified as the most fire resistant, "undamaged." In Wyoming, arrowleaf balsamroot is classified as a desirable range plant that is "slightly damaged" by fire [92]. In a discussion of prescribed burning to control sagebrush and juniper in Utah, Ralphs and others [78] also classify arrowleaf balsamroot as a desirable range plant that is "slightly damaged" by fire. The Fire Management Plan for Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho describes arrowleaf balsamroot as "very fire resistant" [9].

Powell [76], in discussing fire effects on plants in the Malheur National Forest in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, gives arrowleaf balsamroot a "high" fire resistance rating. This rating is interpreted as a greater than 65% chance that 50% of the plants will survive or immediately re-establish after passage of a fire with an average flame length of 12 inches (30 cm).

In a prescribed burn near Elko, Nevada, in August of 1980, a single arrowleaf balsamroot plant was tagged prior to burning. It was killed by the fire. Surface temperatures at the plant reached 1200 to 1500 degrees Fahrenheit (649-816 oC). Soil temperatures reached peaks of 250 and 175 degrees Fahrenheit (121 and 79 oC) at 0.4 and 0.8 inches (1 and 2 cm) below the surface respectively. The authors felt this severe fire was the result of the burnout of adjacent woody sagebrush fuels [79].

Arrowleaf balsamroot sprouts from a caudex and does not spread by rootstocks. Any increase in number of plants must await seed production, so arrowleaf balsamroot increases slowly after burning [124]. In a 1978 study, Wright [123] lists arrowleaf balsamroot as a member of the forb community in climax ponderosa pine community and states these forbs would harmed by fire for no more than a year.

The Fire Management Plan for Craters of the Moon National Monument describes arrowleaf balsamroot's reproduction after fire as "infrequent" but states biomass production is enhanced. This increased biomass will remain high until grasses or shrubs dominate the site [9].

Bunting [16] assigns the following responses of arrowleaf balsamroot to varying fire intervals relative to current conditions in western juniper communities in the Owyee Mountains of southwestern Idaho:

Average fire recurrence in years





increase in abundance increase in abundance no change in abundance decrease in abundance

Young and Evans [126] studied population dynamics of herbaceous plants after a 1972 wildfire in a big sagebrush/Thurber needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum) community in Nevada. The site was typical of degraded rangelands in the Great Basin. They found herbaceous succession after wildfires was dominated by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) except for "...robust perennial forbs not preferred by grazing herbivores." Arrowleaf balsamroot was included in this group. Data are from 100 permanently marked plots on the Red Rock burn. The following table depicts density (number/m2) and frequency of arrowleaf balsamroot on the plots following the fire:

Time after burning 1 month 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years
Density 0.10 0.10 0.17 0.20 0.31
Frequency -- 11 4 8 9

Kuntz [53] cataloged initial plant response to spring burning in a mountain big sagebrush/Idaho fescue habitat type in the Salmon National Forest in Idaho. For a "cool" intensity burn (characterized by incomplete removal of mountain big sagebrush), cover of arrowleaf balsamroot increased for the 1st two postburn years and returned to preburn levels the 3rd postburn year. For a "hot" intensity burn (characterized by complete removal of mountain big sagebrush), cover of arrowleaf balsamroot increased for 3 postburn years.

In south-central Oregon, Powell [76] assigns a rating of "high" to arrowleaf balsamroot's postfire response. This means a population of arrowleaf balsamroot will regain its preburn frequency or cover in 5 years or less. He states plant densities are often greater than preburn densities by the 2nd growing season after burning. After trees re-establish and shading increases, arrowleaf balsamroot populations can be expected to decline dramatically.

Merrill and others [67] compared burned and unburned plots after a 1973 wildfire on White Cap Creek in northern Idaho. The site was a xeric ponderosa pine stand and adjacent montane grassland. They found arrowleaf balsamroot production was consistently higher each year for 3 years after the burn, reaching a peak in postfire year 2. Differences, however, were never great enough to be significant. Yields of arrowleaf balsamroot for 4 years postburn averaged 33 g/m2 on burned plots and 21 g/m2 on unburned plots 

Mean percent canopy coverage and frequency of arrowleaf balsamroot in 20 microplots on 7 burned and 7 unburned plots in 1974 (1st postburn growing season) and 1976 were:

1974 1975 1976 1977 treatment means
burned unburned burned unburned burned unburned burned unburned burned unburned
30 29 30 22 41 14 29 21 33 21

Heights of arrowleaf balsamroot on 7 burned plots averaged 114 to 122 % on unburned plots.

The authors measured mean concentration of 9 minerals in arrowleaf balsamroot from burned and unburned sites for 3 postfire years. Their findings for burned sites relative to unburned sites for 3 postfire years are presented below. The symbol "+" indicates the concentration is more than unburned vegetation, while the symbol "-"indicates a lesser concentration. The only significant difference between burned and unburned vegetation was in 1974 for manganese.

Mineral 1974 1975 1976
nitrogen (%) - - +
potassium (%) + + +
calcium (%) + - -
phosphorus (%) - + -
magnesium(%) - - -
manganese (ppm) + -
copper (ppm) - + +
zinc (ppm) + + -
sodium (ppm) + - +

On ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir communities in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon, arrowleaf balsamroot cover and frequency were higher on sites that had been thinned and burned under prescription than on control sites or sites that were only thinned or burned. Arrowleaf balsamroot was determined to be an indicator species for thinned sites (P0.05). Posttreatment measures were taken 6 years after thinning and 4 years after prescribed burning. For further information on the effect of thinning and prescribed burn treatments to arrowleaf balsamroot and 48 other species, see the Research Project Summary of Youngblood and others' [129] study.

For further information on arrowleaf balsamroot response to fire, see Fire Case Studies. The following Research Project Summaries also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire responses of plant species, including arrowleaf balsamroot, that was not available when this species review was originally written.

Arrowleaf balsamroot is a common component in sagebrush communities. Wright and others [124] state where arrowleaf balsamroot and lupine (Lupinus spp.) make up a large component of herbaceous yield in threetip sagebrush communities, fall burning would help maintain the forb component. They classify arrowleaf balsamroot as a cold desert forb and list it as "undamaged" by fall burning. In a Nevada sagebrush-bunchgrass community, where moisture was "adequate" arrowleaf balsamroot responded " well" to spring burning. Where the grass and forb understory was depleted, cheatgrass became the dominant grass [48].


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
McWilliams, Jack, compiler. 2002. Arrowleaf balsamroot response to spring and fall burning for wildlife habitat improvement in western Montana. In: Balsamorhiza sagittata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

Noste, Nonan V. 1982. Vegetation response to spring and fall burning for wildlife habitat improvement. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 125-132. [72].

Both spring and fall burns were conducted. Severity classifications were not given, but see fire description below for relative severities of both fires. The fall of 1979 was drier than normal producing a "severe" treatment.

The study was conducted in the O'Keefe Creek area, 10 miles (16 km) north of Missoula, Montana.

This study was conducted in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)/ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) habitat type. Wildfire burned the O'Keefe Creek area in 1945, setting succession back to a seral shrub community. During the subsequent longer than normal period without fire, shrub species important for wildlife browse declined. Plants deteriorated in vigor and nutrient levels were so low animals did not use them. The target species of the burn was snowbrush ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus). Arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata) was one of several forb species monitored.

The phenological state of arrowleaf balsamroot during the study is not discussed. However, information reported in Seasonal Development provides some insight into the probable stage of development during the prescribed burns reported in this study. During the spring arrowleaf balsamroot was probably beginning growth, but not yet flowering. In the fall, arrowleaf balsamroot was probably dormant.

The site is on a generally southeast aspect below 4,921 feet (1,500 m). Slope averages 30% with a maximum of 50%.

Four transects were placed on each burn to inventory fuels and vegetation and to characterize the fire. Pre- and postfire measurements were taken on the same plots. Downed woody fuels were inventoried on a 164-foot-long (50 m) transect. The same baseline was used to establish contiguous blocks and nested plots for sampling vegetation.

Fuel loadings for spring and fall burns were:

Size classes (inches)
Transect number 0-1/4 1/4-1 1-3 3+ S1 3+ R2
  Fuel loading (tons/acre)
  Spring burn
S1-1 0.53 1.58 0.37 0 0.75
S1-2 -- -- -- -- --
S1-3 0.76 1.81 0.13 0 0.46
S1-4 0.72 2.34 0.38 0 15.07
  Fall burn
F1-5 0.61 1.81 0.24 16.06 22.15
F1-6 1.21 1.95 0.25 2.39 9.05
F1-7 0.57 0.83 0.12 0 11.02
F1-8 1.14 2.00 0.13 5.17 0.22
1 = sound; 2 = rotten

Fine fuel moisture contents in percents:

Transect dead live
Spring burn
S1-2 upper slope 8 67
S1-3 mid-slope 9 156
S1-1 lower slope 12 149
Fall burn
F1-4 upper slope 6 55
F1-2 mid-slope 8 62
F1-1 lower slope 8 53

The fall fire was set on 3 October, 1979, and burned 49.4 acres (20 ha). The spring fire was set 16 April, 1980, and 124 acres (50 ha) were burned. Fire behavior was measured by observing flame length and rate of spread on 3 transects in each burn. 

Environmental conditions for the burns:

Transect Dry bulb temperature (oF) Relative humidity (%) Wind velocity (mi/hr)
spring fire
S1-2 upper slope 65 36 5/gusts to 7
S1-3 mid-slope 57 30 6/gusts to 10
S1-1 lower slope 62 37 6/gusts to 8
fall fire
F1-4 upper slope 59 30 6/gusts to 8
F1-2 mid-slope 69 23 8
F1-1 lower slope 70 18 7/gusts to 12

Fire descriptions:

Transect Rate of spread (meters/hour) Flame length (feet)
spring fire
S1-2 upper slope 221 3
S1-3 mid-slope 201 3
S1-1 lower slope 362 3
fall fire
F1-4 upper slope 1126 10
F1-2 mid-slope 1026 9
F1-1 lower slope 805 8

Average pre- and postburn volume in feet3/acre on the O'Keefe Creek burn for arrowleaf balsamroot was:

Spring burn Fall burn
1979 (preburn) 1980 (postburn) 1981 (postburn) 1979 (preburn) 1980 (postburn) 1981 (postburn)
89 89 89 0 342 283

Herbaceous cover, including arrowleaf balsamroot, increased more rapidly on the fall burn than the spring burn. On the spring burn, shrub cover exceeded herb cover the 1st postfire growing season. On the fall burn, shrub cover didn't exceed herb coverage until the 2nd postfire growing season. Several more species invaded the fall burn than the spring burn.


SPECIES: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Arrowleaf balsamroot begins growth early and is utilized on spring ranges. It is rated as fair forage for all classes of wildlife. Flowers are especially palatable. Game animals and domestic sheep may eat the seedheads before seed ripens. Deer and elk both use leaves and flowers before plants turn dry [93].

Domestic sheep utilize arrowleaf balsamroot, especially in the spring. In a study at the U. S. Sheep Experimental Station in Idaho, Mueggler [70] found herbage dry weight of arrowleaf balsamroot produced in a paddock and grazed by domestic sheep in both fall and spring to be less than 1% of that produced in a paddock grazed only in fall. Laycock [58], in a separate experiment at the U. S. Sheep Experimental Station, found "heavy" spring grazing by domestic sheep caused an 85% decrease in production of arrowleaf balsamroot.

In a 1957 study in the Bridger Mountains of Montana, Wilkins [121] found Rocky Mountain mule deer utilized arrowleaf balsamroot year-round and that arrowleaf balsamroot was 1 of the "most important" forbs in all seasons. The following table shows seasonal use:

  Observed instances of use (%) Number of rumen samples Percent volume of rumen samples Percent weight of rumen samples
Summer 11 6 9 8
Fall -- 6 9 8
Winter 18 11 12 11
Spring -- 4 10 10

A separate study in Montana found arrowleaf balsamroot "a highly preferred deer forage [56]." In a 1956 study of Rocky Mountain mule deer in the Great Basin of California, Leach [59] found that arrowleaf balsamroot was utilized in winter months.

In a 1973 literature review, Kufeld and others [52] found arrowleaf balsamroot to be of "moderate" importance year-round as food used by Rocky Mountain mule deer. They list it as 1 of the most frequent forbs in Rocky Mountain mule deer diets.

Food habits of mule deer were quantified by Burrell [18] in a study in Entiat, Washington, in relation to the abundance of antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) on critical winter range. Utilization of arrowleaf balsamroot was different on the 3 sites studied, but remained relatively steady within each site throughout the winter.

A study in British Columbia determined arrowleaf balsamroot commonly occurs in the diet of California bighorn sheep. Leaf length, basal diameter, culm length, and culm numbers appear to be unaffected by grazing by bighorn sheep [120]. In an Idaho study in the River of No Return Wilderness Area, arrowleaf balsamroot made up 10% of the June-August diet of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep on Big Creek [24].

Arrowleaf balsamroot is utilized in spring by pronghorns in California [104] and Wyoming [93].

Markum [61] conducted a study of elk ecology in western Montana and found arrowleaf balsamroot was both utilized and preferred by elk during June, July, and August. Kufeld [51] did a literature review of foods used by Rocky Mountain elk and found arrowleaf balsamroot to be a "valuable" food in winter and spring, and was "least valuable" in summer.

Columbia ground squirrels utilize the leaves of arrowroot balsamroot in central Idaho subalpine forest openings [55]. In a study of flammulated owl habitat in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana, Wright [125] found the owls to be positively associated with dry-site indicator species such as arrowleaf balsamroot.

Palatability/nutritional value: Arrowleaf balsamroot is an important forage plant; it is especially valuable on spring ranges. It is usually of fair palatability for all classes of livestock. In some localities both cattle and domestic sheep graze it closely even where other palatable forage is abundant. Flowers are especially palatable, but all portions of the plant except for the coarser stalks are eaten. Horses like arrowleaf balsamroot and are especially fond of the flowers. Plants are eaten throughout the grazing season but are usually more palatable during spring and early summer than later when tough and dry. Dry leafage is eaten "lightly" by horses, cattle,  domestic sheep, and game animals especially in fall when moistened by early rains and snow [108].

Arrowleaf balsamroot contains nearly 30% protein when immature and 10% protein when mature [82]. Elliott and Flinders [24] reported monthly percent nutrient and moisture content of arrowleaf balsamroot at Rush Point, River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho. Figures represent the average and standard deviation for each month given.

Month Crude fiber Crude protein Ca P Ca:P Moisture
June 29 ± 2.1 20 ± 3.2 2.45 ± 1.15 0.26 ± 0.06 9.4:1 81 ± 3
July 31 ± 6.4 14 ± 1.0 1.57 ± 0.83 0.21 ± 0.11 7.5:1 63 ± 3
August 29 ± 3.4 10 ± 1.8 1.48 ± 0.76 0.19 ± 0.03 7.8:1 52 ± 2

Winter nutritive value of arrowleaf balsamroot is: crude protein, 3.6% and P, 0.06% [117].

Merrill and others [67] found arrowleaf balsamroot to have mineral concentrations of greater than 2.0% nitrogen, 4.0% potassium, and 1.3% calcium. For a discussion of how fire affected these and other mineral concentrations see Discussion and Qualification of Plant Response.

McClean and Marchand [65] classify arrowleaf balsamroot's palatability as fair in a ponderosa pine habitat type in southern British Columbia. They rate it as an "increaser." It is "occasional" on excellent and good ranges, "common" on fair ranges and "common to abundant" on poor ranges.

Cover value: A study of Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in western Idaho showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher mean canopy coverage of arrowleaf balsamroot at flush sites than at random sites [85]. A similar study, in west-central Idaho, found Columbian sharp-tailed grouse selected areas with greater canopy coverage and density of arrowleaf balsamroot than random sites [62].

Klebenow [47] studied sage-grouse nesting and brooding habitat in Idaho and determined arrowleaf balsamroot was found more frequently on nesting sites than non-nesting sites, though the difference was not significant. He also found arrowleaf balsamroot was "associated" with broods. He speculated that arrowleaf balsamroot is an indicator that site conditions are suitable for other species of plants that attract sage-grouse.

Arrowleaf balsamroot has been utilized in seeding mixtures for restoration, recovery of disturbed sites, and improving forage production. Kitchen and Monsen [46] found seed dormancy of arrowleaf balsamroot prevents summer or fall germination. Fall seeding allows for full operation of dormancy breaking processes  and reduces risk of seed predation associated with summer dispersal. Since optimum temperatures for germination are essentially optimum temperatures for stratification, stratification of arrowleaf balsamroot seeds before sowing in the field or nursery may cause emerging radicles to be damaged (see Germination).

Arrowleaf balsamroot has been used as part of a seed mix for game range restoration in Utah. It has a rated "high" potential for restoration of oil shale, coal-mined lands, and roadside and critical site stabilization and beautification. It has medium potential for revegetation of surface disturbed lands in the Intermountain Region [113].  

Also in Utah, Stevens and Davis [98] rate arrowleaf balsamroot as a species "with potential" for seeding into Gambel oak communities to improve forage production. The specific types of Gambel oak communities are: north and east exposures; sunny, dry exposures; and "open" Gambel oak-Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) sites.

Stanton [93] includes seeds of arrowleaf balsamroot in seed mixture for big sagebrush types in a table taken from Plummer and others, 1968. He recommends 0.25 to 0.5 pound of seed per acre (0.6-1.2 kg/ha) when using a drill and 0.5 to 1 pound per acre (1.2-2.4 kg/ha) when broadcasting seed as part of a seed mixture. Soil should be well drained and "fairly" dry in areas with at least 9 inches (225 mm) of precipitation. Kitchen [45] recommends 1.0 to 4.0 pound of seed per acre (1.1-4.5 kg/ha) when used as part of a "diverse" seed mix.

In an experiment rating species for seeding arid rangeland in southern Idaho, arrowleaf balsamroot establishment was rated as "very poor" with a 65% failure rate [40]. Shaw and Monsen [89] assign a low rating to arrowleaf balsamroot's soil stabilization qualities. Better stands develop by planting arrowleaf balsamroot in alternate rows with quicker developing or more competitive species [113].

In a laboratory study of "commonly planted" seeds used in reseeding projects, arrowleaf balsamroot seeds were rated 3rd of 18 in preference tests with deer mice. This may account for predation of seeds in areas where deer mice are common [25]. Shaw and Monsen [89] state insect predation of arrowleaf balsamroot seed is common.

In 1996, 625 pounds (284 kg) of arrowleaf balsamroot seed were sold by 5 Utah companies [97]. A "low" percent of establishment success can be expected even when proper transplanting techniques are followed when using bareroot and wilding stock of arrowleaf balsamroot [96].

Stanton [93] recommends arrowleaf balsamroot seeds be cleaned with a macerator-chopper and fan. He designates 95% as an acceptable purity level with 5 years as a limit on storage. With 5 years storage there should be a germination level of 36-52%.

Arrowleaf balsamroot has been traditionally been used by First Nation peoples for many uses including food and medicine. Native Americans in Washington State used the "sprouts" of arrowleaf balsamroot in their diet. These shoots are high in ascorbic acid (13.75 mg/g) [71]. Native Canadians of British Columbia also ate the sprouts along with the starchy roots. In addition, the plant was used to treat stomachache, headache, colds, fever, sore throat, toothache, wounds, insect bites, and swellings [63].

Houston and others [39] state Native Americans in Wyoming ate the young stalks, roots and seeds of arrowleaf balsamroot. Members of the Salish, Kootenai, and Nez Perce tribes peeled arrowleaf balsamroot's young, immature flower stems and ate the tender inner portion raw, like celery. The Nez Perce ate the seeds. Salish used the large, coarse leaves as a poultice for burns and drank tea brewed from the roots for tuberculosis, whooping cough, increased urine, and as a cathartic. Members of the Kootenai tribe boiled the roots and applied the infusion as a poultice for wounds, cuts, and bruises [34].

The Cheyenne tribe boiled roots, stems, and leaves and drank the decoction for stomach pains and headaches. They also steamed the plant and inhaled the vapors for the same purposes [103].

Herbicides: There are no accounts in the literature of herbicides being used specifically on arrowleaf balsamroot. However, reaction of arrowleaf balsamroot to herbicides when they were used on other plants has been observed. In eastern Idaho, forbs may account for as much as 50% of herbaceous production. Use of herbicides in this area to manage sagebrush-grass communities is likely to reduce forbs, including arrowleaf balsamroot, which is typically 1 of the most abundant forbs [124]. Application of 2,4-D to big sagebrush in Clark County, Idaho, resulted in "heavy" damage to arrowleaf balsamroot [12].

Rice and Toney [81] conducted experiments with picloram and a mixture of clopyralid and 2,4-D on spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos) in Montana, and found arrowleaf balsamroot showed no response, positive or negative, to treatments applied. Carpenter [19], also in Montana, applied picloram and picloram + clopyralid to spotted knapweed. Arrowleaf balsamroot leaves appeared withered shortly after spraying on treatments containing picloram, but plants were present and vigorous on all treatments 12 months after spraying.

Grazing: When grazing domestic sheep in sagebrush with good understory of perennial grasses and "weeds," it is recommended to leave 50% of total growth of arrowleaf balsamroot at the end of the spring grazing season and 40% at the end of the fall season [74].

Areas that have been seeded with arrowleaf balsamroot should not be grazed for at least 2 growing seasons following seeding [100].

Balsamorhiza sagittata: REFERENCES

1. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
2. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
3. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
4. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]
5. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. [350]
6. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
7. Barrett, Stephen W. 1984. Fire history of the River of No Return Wilderness: River Breaks Zone. Final Report. Missoula, MT: Systems for Environmental Management. 40 p. plus appendices. [10041]
8. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. Fire regimes on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 21 p. [41883]
9. Barrington, Mac; Bunting, Steve; Wright, Gerald. 1988. A fire management plan for Craters of the Moon National Monument. Cooperative Agreement CA-9000-8-0005. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Range Resources Department. 52 p. Draft. [1687]
10. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
11. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr.; Tueller, Paul T. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Coils Creek Watershed. R-48. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 80 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [455]
12. Blaisdell, James P.; Mueggler, Walter F. 1956. Effect of 2,4-D on forbs and shrubs associated with big sagebrush. Journal of Range Management. 9: 38-40. [465]
13. Blaisdell, James P.; Pechanec, Joseph F. 1949. Effects of herbage removal at various dates on vigor of bluebunch wheatgrass and arrowleaf balsamroot. Ecology. 30(3): 298-305. [468]
14. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557]
15. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18211]
16. Bunting, Stephen C. 1987. Use of prescribed burning in juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 141-144. [4836]
17. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]
18. Burrell, Galen C. 1982. Winter diets of mule deer in relation to bitterbrush abundance. Journal of Range Management. 35(4): 508-510. [40984]
19. Carpenter, Jeffrey L. 1986. Responses of three plant communities to herbicide spraying and burning of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 110 p. Thesis. [24496]
20. Cronquist, Arthur. 1955. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest: Part 5: Compositae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 343 p. [716]
21. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
22. Dealy, J. Edward. 1975. Ecology of curlleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) in eastern Oregon and adjacent areas. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 161 p. Thesis. [21001]
23. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
24. Elliott, Charles R.; Flinders, Jerran T. 1984. Plant nutrient levels on two summer ranges in the River of No Return Wilderness Area, Idaho. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(1): 621-626. [859]
25. Everett, Richard L.; Meeuwig, Richard O.; Stevens, Richard. 1978. Deer mouse preference for seed of commonly planted species, indigenous weed seed, and sacrifice foods. Journal of Range Management. 31(1): 70-73. [896]
26. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
27. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]
28. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
29. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]
30. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
31. Gregory, Shari. 1983. Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Final Report. U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Education Agreement: Contract OM 40-8555-3-115. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 100 p. [1040]
32. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
33. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
34. Hart, J. 1976. Montana native plants and early peoples. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society. 75 p. [9979]
35. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
36. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-276. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1181]
37. Hopkins, William E.; Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1983. Plant associations of the Crooked River National Grassland. R6 Ecol 133-1983. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 98 p. [1193]
38. Houston, Douglas B. 1973. Wildfires in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology. 54(5): 1111-1117. [5781]
39. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
40. Hull, A. C., Jr. 1974. Species for seeding arid rangeland in southern Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 27(3): 216-218. [2891]
41. Johnson, Charles G., Jr.; Simon, Steven A. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province: Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. Baker, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 p. [9600]
42. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
43. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
44. Keown, L. D. 1977. Interim report: Black Tail Hills Prescribed Fire Project: implementation and results. Great Falls, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lewis and Clark National Forest. 9 p. [12233]
45. Kitchen, Stanley G. 1994. Perennial forb life-history strategies on semiarid rangelands: implications for revegetation. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 342-346. [24307]
46. Kitchen, Stanley G.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1996. Arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata) seed germination and establishment success (Utah). Restoration and Management Notes. 14(2): 180-181. [28606]
47. Klebenow, Donald A. 1969. Sage grouse nesting and brood habitat in Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(3): 649-662. [26035]
48. Klebenow, Donald A.; Gray, Gene M. 1968. Food habits of juvenile sage grouse. Journal of Range Management. 21(2): 80-83. [35806]
49. Koniak, Susan. 1985. Succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands following wildfire in the Great Basin. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 556-566. [1371]
50. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]
51. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385]
52. Kufeld, Roland C.; Wallmo, O. C.; Feddema, Charles. 1973. Foods of the Rocky Mountain mule deer. Res. Pap. RM-111. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 31 p. [1387]
53. Kuntz, David Edward. 1982. Plant response following spring burning in an Artemisia tridentata subsp. vaseyana/ Festuca idahoensis habitat type. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 73 p. Thesis. [1388]
54. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1986. Plants of west-central Montana--identification and ecology: annotated checklist. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-217. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [2955]
55. Lambeth, Ron; Hironaka M. 1982. Columbia ground squirrel in subalpine forest openings in central Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 35(4): 493-497. [8269]
56. Lavelle, Darlene Anne. 1986. Use and preference of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) by elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) on two winter ranges in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 72 p. Thesis. [37896]
57. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
58. Laycock, William A. 1967. How heavy grazing and protection affect sagebrush-grass ranges. Journal of Range Management. 20: 206-213. [1421]
59. Leach, Howard R. 1956. Food habits of the Great Basin deer herds of California. California Fish and Game. 38: 243-308. [3502]
60. Loope, Lloyd L.; Gruell, George E. 1973. The ecological role of fire in the Jackson Hole area, northwestern Wyoming. Quaternary Research. 3: 425-443. [1472]
61. Marcum, C. Les. 1979. Summer-fall food habits and forage preferences of a western Montana elk herd. In: Boyce, Mark S.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D., eds. North American elk: ecology, behavior and management. Laramie, WY: The University of Wyoming: 54-62. [39437]
62. Marks, Jeffrey S.; Marks, Victoria Saab. 1987. Habitat selection by Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in west-central Idaho. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Boise District. 115 p. [23503]
63. Matsuura, H.; Saxena, G.; Farmer, S. W.; [and others]. 1996. An antibacterial thiophene from Balsamorhiza sagittata. Planta Med. 62(1): 65-66. [40976]
64. McKell, Cyrus M. 1950. A study of plant succession in the oak brush (Quercus gambelii) zone after fire. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah. 79 p. Thesis. [1608]
65. McLean, Alastair; Marchand, Leonard. 1968. Grassland ranges in the southern interior of British Columbia. Publication 1319. Ottawa, Canada: Canada Department of Agriculture, Division. 18 p. [1622]
66. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
67. Merrill, Evelyn H.; Mayland, Henry F.; Peek, James M. 1980. Effects of a fall wildfire on herbaceous vegetation on xeric sites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 33(5): 363-367. [1642]
68. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. [25666]
69. Mitchell, Jerry M. 1984. Fire management action plan: Zion National Park, Utah. Record of Decision. 73 p. Salt Lake City, UT: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17278]
70. Mueggler, Walter F. 1950. Effects of spring and fall grazing by sheep on vegetation of the upper Snake River plains. Journal of Range Management. 3: 308-315. [1703]
71. Norton, H. H.; Hunn, E. S.; Martinsen, C. S.; Keely, P. B. 1984. Vegetable food products of the foraging economies of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 14(3): 219-228. [10327]
72. Noste, Nonan V. 1982. Vegetation response to spring and fall burning for wildlife habitat improvement. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 125-132. [1784]
73. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
74. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George. 1949. Grazing spring-fall sheep ranges of southern Idaho. Circ. No. 808. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1855]
75. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Blaisdell, James P. 1954. Sagebrush burning good and bad. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1859]
76. Powell, David C. 1994. Effects of the 1980's western spruce budworm outbreak on the Malheur National Forest in northeastern Oregon. Tech. Pub. R6-FI&D-TP-12-94. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Natural Resources Staff, Forest Insects and Diseases Group. 176 p. [29717]
77. Rainier Seeds, Inc. 2003. Catalog, [Online]. Davenport, WA: Rainer Seeds, Inc., (Producer). Available: [2003, February 14]. [27624]
78. Ralphs, Michael H.; Schen, David C.; Busby, Fee. 1975. Prescribed burning--effective control of sagebrush and open juniper. Utah Science. 36(3): 94-98. [1931]
79. Range, Phil; Veisze, Paul; Zschaechner, Greg. 1981. Great Basin rate-of-spread study: Fire effects. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Office of Fire and Aviation Management, Reno, Nevada. 55 p. [1936]
80. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
81. Rice, P. M.; Toney, J. C. 1996. Plant population responses to broadcast herbicide applications for spotted knapweed control. Down to Earth. 51(2): 14-19. [27754]
82. Ricketts, Matt. 1994. Cutting ranching costs: optimizing forage protein value. Rangelands. 16(6): 260-264. [29726]
83. Robson, K. A.; Scagel, R. K; Maze J. 1988. Sources of morphological variation and organization within and amoung populations of Balsamorhiza sagittata. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 11-17. [2959]
84. Romme, William H. 1982. Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs. 52(2): 199-221. [9696]
85. Saab, Victoria Ann; Marks, Jeffrey Shaw. 1992. Summer habitat use by Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in western Idaho. The Great Basin Naturalist. 52(2): 166-173. [19689]
86. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
87. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2082]
88. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. [7064]
89. Shaw, Nancy L.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1983. Nonleguminous forbs for rangeland sites. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 123-131. [2121]
90. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
91. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 142 p. [27992]
92. Smith, Michael A.; Busby, Fee. 1981. Prescribed burning: effective control of sagebrush in Wyoming. RJ-165. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 12 p. [2175]
93. Stanton, Frank. 1974. Wildlife guidelines for range fire rehabilitation. Tech. Note 6712. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 90 p. [2221]
94. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1995. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: a summary of succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 23 p. [26587]
95. Stevens, Richard. 1983. Species adapted for seeding mountain brush, big, black, and low sagebrush, and pinyon-juniper communities. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 78-82. [2240]
96. Stevens, Richard. 1994. Interseeding and transplanting to enhance species composition. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 300-306. [24301]
97. Stevens, Richard. 1999. Restoration of native communities by chaining and seeding. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard, compilers. Proceedings: ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the Interior West: Sustaining and restoring a diverse ecosystem; 1997 September 15-18; Provo, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-9. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 285-289. [30567]
98. Stevens, Richard; Davis, James N. 1985. Opportunities for improving forage production in the Gambel oak types of Utah. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Proceedings, 3rd Utah shrub ecology workshop; 1983 August 30-31; Provo, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources: 37-41. [3085]
99. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R.; Davis, James N. 1981. Viability of seed from thirty-two shrub and forb species through fifteen years of warehouse storage. The Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 274-277. [2244]
100. Stevens, Richard; Shaw, Nancy; Howard, Charles G. 1985. Important nonleguminous forbs for Intermountain ranges. In: Range plant improvement in western North America: Proceedings of a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; 1985 February 14; Salt Lake City, UT. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 102-112. [2248]
101. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]
102. Strong, Laurence L.; Dana, Robert W.; Carpenter, Len H. 1985. Estimating phytomass of sagebrush habitat types from microdensitometer data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 51(4): 467-474. [2267]
103. Stubbendieck, James; Hatch, Stephan L.; Butterfield, Charles H. 1992. North American range plants. 4th ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 493 p. [25162]
104. Sundstrom, Charles; Hepworth, William G.; Diem, Kenneth L. 1973. Abundance, distribution and food habits of the pronghorn: A partial characterization of the optimum pronghorn habitat. Bulletin No. 12. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Commission. 59 p. [5906]
105. Tisdale, E. W. 1947. The grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia. Ecology. 28(4): 346-382. [2340]
106. Tisdale, E. W. 1986. Canyon grasslands and associated shrublands of west-central Idaho and adjacent areas. Bulletin No. 40. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences. 42 p. [2338]
107. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 1989. Identification characteristics of major sagebrush taxa and species adapted to areas inhabited by each. The Habitat Express. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. No. 89-1. 2 p. [5911]
108. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387]
109. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2008. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: /. [34262]
110. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]
111. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434]
112. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
113. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Western Energy and Land Use Team. 347 p. Available from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161; PB-83-167023. [2458]
114. Weaver, J. E. 1917. A study of the vegetation of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Nebraska University Studies. 17(1): 1-133. [7153]
115. Weaver, John Ernst. 1914. Evaporation and plant succession in southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Plant World. 17(10): 273-294. [2466]
116. Weaver, John Ernst. 1915. A study of the root-systems of prairie plants of southeastern Washington. Plant World. 18(9): 227-248, 273-292. [3758]
117. Welch, Bruce L. 1989. Nutritive value of shrubs. In: McKell, Cyrus M., ed. The biology and utilization of shrubs. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc: 405-424. [8041]
118. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
119. West, Neil E.; Tausch, Robin J.; Tueller, Paul T. 1998. A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-12. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 42 p. [29131]
120. Wikeem, Brian M.; Pitt, Michael D. 1991. Grazing effects and range trend assessment on California bighorn sheep range. Journal of Range Management. 44(5): 466-470. [30412]
121. Wilkins, Bruce T. 1957. Range use, food habits, and agricultural relationships of the mule deer, Bridger Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 21(2): 159-169. [1411]
122. Wischnofske, Merle G.; Anderson, David W. 1983. The natural role of fire in Wenatchee Valley. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest. 19 p. (+ Appendices). [35550]
123. Wright, Henry A. 1978. The effect of fire on vegetation in ponderosa pine forests: A state-of-the-art review. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, Department of Range and Wildlife Management. 21 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [4425]
124. Wright, Henry A.; Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Britton, Carlton M. 1979. The role and use of fire in sagebrush-grass and pinyon-juniper plant communities: A state-of-the-art review. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-58. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [2625]
125. Wright, Vita. 1996. Multi-scale analysis of flammulated owl habitat use: Owl distribution, habitat management, and conservation. Missoula, MT: The University of Montana. 91 p. M.S. thesis. [28662]
126. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1978. Population dynamics after wildfires in sagebrush grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 283-289. [2657]
127. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1979. Arrowleaf balsamroot and mules ear seed germination. Journal of Range Management. 32(1): 71-74. [2658]
128. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]
129. Youngblood, Andrew; Metlen, Kerry L.; Coe, Kent. 2006. Changes in stand structure and composition after restoration treatments in low elevation dry forests of northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 234(1-3): 143-163. [64992]

FEIS Home Page