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SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia



W.L. Wagner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Luz Hernandez @ Medicinal Plants of the Southwest

McWilliams, Jack 2003. Artemisia filifolia In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].


Oligosporus filifolius (Torr.) Poljakov [80]


sand sagebrush
sand sage
old-man sagebrush

The accepted scientific name of sand sagebrush is Artemisia filifolia Torr. (Asteraceae) [37,38,46,81]. Sand sagebrush is not known to hybridize with other sagebrushes (Artemisia spp.) [48].


No special status

No entry


SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia
Sand sagebrush occurs from Nevada and Utah east to Wyoming and western Nebraska and south to Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua, Mexico [48].

FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)


5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K032 Transition between K031 and K037
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K041 Creosote bush
K053 Grama-galleta steppe
K054 Grama-tobosa prairie
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna
K060 Mesquite savanna
K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie
K071 Shinnery
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

67 Mohrs (shin) oak
68 Mesquite
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon-juniper
242 Mesquite

212 Blackbush
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
416 True mountain-mahogany
417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany
502 Grama-galleta
503 Arizona chaparral
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association
601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
605 Sandsage prairie
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
612 Sagebrush-grass
705 Blue grama-galleta
707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama
708 Bluestem-dropseed
709 Bluestem-grama
711 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie
714 Grama-bluestem
715 Grama-buffalo grass
717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass
718 Mesquite-grama
720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes)
721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains)
722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie
727 Mesquite-buffalo grass
729 Mesquite
730 Sand shinnery oak

Sand sagebrush communities are generally associated with deep sand deposits. Sand sagebrush is usually the dominant overstory component within these communities. The understory is composed primarily of annuals with sand-loving perennial forbs and grasses [59].

Community types: A community type of sand sagebrush is delineated by Collins [14] in southeastern Wyoming on sandy soils. Lauenroth and Milchunas [42] describe a community type of sand sagebrush/little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) occurring on aeolian sands in the shortgrass prairie.

Plant series: A honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)-sand sagebrush series occurs on sandy soils in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. In sand sagebrush-midgrass series, an evergreen shrubland or midgrass grassland occurs on sandy soils in the rolling and high plains area [74].

Plant alliances: In Kansas 3 shrubland "alliances" with sand sagebrush as a dominant are listed by Lauver and others [44]. All of these alliances occur on "excessively-drained," sandy soils.

Sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii)/sand sagebrush type: This ecotype is common in Texas wherever sand shinnery oak grows. It is characterized by honey mesquite, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and plains yucca (Yucca campestris). Most common grasses include purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea), black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), false buffalograss (Monroa squarrosa), and dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.) [65].

Sand sagebrush type: In a discussion of major forage types in Colorado and Wyoming, Costello [17] describes a sand sagebrush type with blue grama  (B. gracilis) with a mixture of taller grasses including needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), red threeawn (A. p. var. longiseta), and sand dropseed (S. cryptandrus) along with sand indicators prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia) and sand bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus). Little bluestem now persists mostly where moisture conditions are favorable and in cemeteries where there is no grazing. On areas heavily and continuously overgrazed, blue grama is commonly replaced by Russian-thistle (Salsola kali), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), saltmeadow plantain (Plantago argyraea), and spreading buckwheat (Eriogonum effusum) [17].

Sand sagebrush grasslands: Sand sagebrush occurs with perennial grasses such as little bluestem, Carolina crabgrass (Digitaria cognata), blue grama, sand bluestem, and sand dropseed [15].


SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia
This description of sand sagebrush includes characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology. It is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [37,38,81]).

Sand sagebrush is a native, round, freely-branching woody shrub up to 5 feet (1.5 m) tall. Leaves are 1.2 to 2.0 inches (3-8 cm) long, less than 0.5 mm wide, entire or pinnately divided into filiform divisions and often fascicled. Numerous nodding heads containing 2 or 3 fertile, pistillate ray flowers and 1 to 6 perfect but sterile disc flowers are arranged into leafy, narrow panicles [48]. Fruits of sand sagebrush are lightly-ribbed, obovoid achenes 0.7 to 1.0 mm long and 0.4 to 0.5 mm wide [72].

Sand sagebrush can accumulate mineral nutrients well above levels found in the soils in which it grows, indicating it is adapted to soils of low fertility [50].


Breeding system: Pendleton and others [56] describe sagebrush as monoecious.

Pollination: Sand sagebrush is wind pollinated [47,56].

Seed production: No information

Seed dispersal: Sagebrush seed in general has very poor dispersal. It lacks appendages for airborne transport by wind or attachment to animals. Most seed falls beneath the plant and moves 3 feet (0.9 m) or less per generation [64]. There are no specific references to dispersal of sand sagebrush seeds in the literature.

Seed banking: No information

Germination: In laboratory germination trials, Bridges [9] planted sand sagebrush at various depths. He found germination only occurred at a planting depth of 0.5 inch (1.3 cm). Other depths tested were all deeper, implying sand sagebrush germinates better at shallow depths than deeper. It was 17 days from planting until 1st emergence of sand sagebrush seedlings. Vines [79] states seed of sand sagebrush has a germination rate of 40 to 50%.

Seedling establishment/growth: Sand sagebrush was planted at the Alton coal fields in Utah [24]. Three years after planting, sand sagebrush seedlings had a 75% survival rate, and plants averaged 36 inches (91.4 cm) in height with 42 inches (106.7 cm) mean crown diameter.

Asexual regeneration: Sand sagebrush resprouts profusely after both fall and spring prescribed burns [76].

Sand sagebrush occurs on dunes, hills and other deep, well-drained sands [35].

Secor and others [65] analyzed soil samples taken from surface soil directly beneath sand sagebrush plants in a shinnery oak/sand sagebrush community in New Mexico. Their results indicate sand sagebrush grows in sandy soils with low silt and clay values. Their analysis of soil texture was:

Soil separates (mean value of 4 determinations) in percent Textural class
sand silt clay
94.25 4.5 1.25 sand

Daley [18] analyzed the soil at 2 different sand sagebrush sites in eastern Colorado and also found sand sagebrush grows in sandy soils with low silt and clay components. The sites are approximately 100 miles (160 km) apart. His results, expressed in percentages and standard error of the mean (S.E.), are:

Site Sand S.E. Silt S.E. Clay S.E.
North 93 1.3 4 1.1 4 0.9
South 83 2.2 9 1.6 8 0.8

Elevational range for sand sagebrush over its whole range is given as 2,000 to 6,000 feet (610-1,829 m) [35]. Some elevational ranges for individual states are:

Arizona: 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,219-1,829 m) [38]
Colorado: 3,500 to 5,500 feet (1,067-1,676 m) [31]
New Mexico: 3,500 to 5,500 feet (1,067-1,676 m) [46]
Texas: 2,500 to 5,000 feet (762-1,524 m) [57]
Utah: 2,707 to 7,513 feet (825-2290 m)[81]

Annual precipitation for the shortgrass prairie, which includes sand sagebrush as a major shrub, ranges from 11.8 to 21.7 inches (300-550 mm) [42]. In Utah sand sagebrush occurs in areas with 8 to10 inches (200-275 mm) of annual precipitation [59]. The sandhills of Oklahoma, where sand sagebrush is a dominant shrub, receives 23.7 inches (602 mm) average annual precipitation [76].

In the sand hills of Colorado, sand sagebrush forms a "subclimax" community with sand sagebrush as a dominant shrub [58]. Also in Colorado, Daley [18] states sand sagebrush is part of a climax, edaphic variant of the mixed-grass prairie.

Diamond and others [20] describe 2 "series" of plants containing sand sagebrush as "late seral." First is an evergreen shrub system described as a sand sagebrush-mid-grass series that occurs on the high plains and rolling plains of  Texas. The 2nd is a "mainly deciduous shrub" series of honey mesquite-sand sagebrush that occurs in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas.

Information on the phenology of sand sagebrush is sparse. Growing period for sand sagebrush in the southern Great Plains is from February to November [63]. In the north Central Plains sand sagebrush fruit ripens from September to October [68]. Flowering times for sand sagebrush in several states are:

Arizona: August through November [38]
New Mexico: August and September [46]
Kansas: August to October [6]


SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia
Fire adaptations: Sand sagebrush sprouts after top-kill by fire [8,43,76]. Postfire seedling establishment has not been documented, but Wright and others [83] state fire kills sand sagebrush and abundant seedlings are produced after a fire.

Fire regimes: In an early (1939) report on vegetation of Colorado sand hills, Ramaly [58] describes a sand sagebrush community as "...a somewhat permanent community partly dependent for its persistence upon grass fires and overgrazing."

There is no specific information in the literature concerning fire regimes for sand sagebrush. Fire regimes for plant communities and ecosystems in which sand sagebrush occurs are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [40,54]
Nebraska sandhills prairie A. gerardii var. paucipilus-S. scoparium < 10
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie A. littoralis-Spartina spartinae < 10
sagebrush steppe A. tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [54]
basin big sagebrush A. tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [62]
mountain big sagebrush A. tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [3,12,52]
Wyoming big sagebrush A. tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40**) [78,84]
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35
blue grama-buffalo grass B. gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides < 35
grama-galleta steppe B. gracilis-P. jamesii < 35 to < 100
blue grama-tobosa prairie B. gracilis-P. mutica < 35 to < 100
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii < 35 to < 100
blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima < 35 to < 100
creosotebush Larrea tridentata < 35 to < 100
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 35
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. < 35
Mexican pinyon Pinus cembroides 20-70 [53,73]
Colorado pinyon P. edulis 10-400+ [25,29,39]
interior ponderosa pine* P. ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [2,5,45]
Arizona pine Pinus p. var. arizonica 2-15 [5,16,66]
galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea < 35 to < 100 [54]
mesquite Prosopis glandulosa < 35 to < 100 [51,54]
mesquite-buffalo grass P. glandulosa-Buchloe dactyloides < 35
Texas savanna P. g. var. glandulosa < 10
shinnery Quercus mohriana < 35
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [54]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary

Tall shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia
Sand sagebrush is top-killed by fire [43].

In a discussion of fire effects on shortgrass prairie, where sand sagebrush is a dominant  member of the woody shrub community, Ford and McPherson [26] state fire contributes to reductions in woody plant cover and an increase in the density and diversity of herbaceous dicots. They note that in general, plant species in semiarid grasslands are more strongly influenced by fire season and frequency than fire behavior.

Vermeire and others [76] conducted both spring and fall prescribed burns to determine effects of fire on sand sagebrush in Oklahoma. They found fire-induced mortality was less than 10% for both fall and spring burns. However, Wright and others [83] describe sand sagebrush as killed by fire.

Sand sagebrush resprouts profusely after both fall and spring prescribed burns [76]. Braun [8] states sand sagebrush resprouts after fire.

In fall and spring prescribed burns on sand sagebrush, Vermeire and others [76] found "profuse" resprouting, seemingly without any negative effects on the plant's carbohydrate reserves. Sand sagebrush on fall-burned plots resprouted the next March, a month after bud break on nonburned sand sagebrush. Of the plants burned, 94% resprouted. Sand sagebrush in spring-burned plots initiated resprouting in May of the same year with a 92% resprout rate.

Vermeire and others [76] found the primary effect of fire on sand sagebrush was alteration of canopy structure. Fall burns reduced shrub height by nearly 50% and canopy area and volume by more than 75%. Spring burns reduced shrub height, canopy area and volume by more than 90%.

In a 1978 study on controlling woody range plants in Nebraska, Launchbaugh and Owensby [43] state sand sagebrush can be "controlled" by spring burning at "grass greenup" to kill the tops of sand sagebrush and then moderate continuous grazing pressure can be used to retard sprouts and seedlings. They urge caution with sandy sites where thick brush occurs because complete plant removal by fire and subsequent hoof action may open up an area to wind and water erosion. Humphrey [33] cautions "...control of sand sagebrush, particularly by fire, should be attempted only after careful evaluation of the local erosion hazard" and Daley [18] states a reduction in cover of sand sagebrush could have "serious effects" by exposing the surface to wind erosion.

Applying prescribed fire to sand sagebrush communities does not appear to be a viable option for reducing shrub density, unless delayed mortality occurs due to additional stresses, such as infestation by insects. Prescribed fire may be a useful tool for reducing sand sagebrush canopy height and volume and potentially making resources, such as light and water, available to more desirable grasses and forbs [76].


SPECIES: Artemisia filifolia
The browse value of sand sagebrush depends on where it grows [48] and availability of other forage [35]. It is seldom eaten in grasslands where other forage is adequate, but in more arid, desert regions, it is utilized by cattle, domestic sheep, and big game [48].

Sand sagebrush is listed as a plant "...important to Texas and New Mexico mule deer" by Bryant and Morrison [11], and Bryant and Demarais [10] list sand sagebrush as having "medium" food value for white-tailed deer in Texas.

In the panhandle of Oklahoma prairie dogs establish "towns" in overgrazed sand sagebrush grasslands [13], and burrowing owls utilize abandoned burrows as nesting sites.

Sage-grouse, a sagebrush-obligate species, generally is reliant on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) but at the edges of its range it utilizes sand sagebrush [8]. In New Mexico sand sagebrush is an important part of the diet of lesser prairie-chickens, particularly in winter [32]. In Oklahoma, Jones [36] studied lesser prairie-chickens and analyzed their diet for 3 years. He found sand sagebrush was utilized by lesser prairie-chickens from November through March. No utilization was noted during April through October. His findings, expressed as percent volume of food use for 2 plant associations are [36]:

  November December January February March
Shrub association 4.2 1.1 1.1 0.5 0.6
Half-shrub association 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.8

Jones [36] also assigned a "food index value" to sand sagebrush for both vegetational associations. This index places a relative value to a food item based on availability and use for a given period. In the shrub association, sand sagebrush was assigned an index value of 4 out of 12 plants. In the half-shrub association sand sagebrush was given a value of 3 out of 13 plants.

Also in Oklahoma scaled quail utilize the seeds of sand sagebrush, and Ault and Stormer [4] assigned a "selectivity rating" of low in fall and winter and medium in spring and summer for scaled quail use of sand sagebrush seeds. This rating was calculated by dividing the percentage of the food item in the feces of the bird by the percentage of the item in availability samples of that food category.

Chemical control of large blocks of sand sagebrush was carried out on the Cimarron National Grassland in southwestern Kansas in 1978. Rodgers and Sexson [61] compared post treatment response of breeding birds on treated blocks of sand sagebrush pasture with untreated blocks for 5 years. They used 10 listening stations per pasture. They found "extreme variations" in bird diversity and abundance on the treated pasture were associated with sharp annual changes in the herbaceous community during the 1st three years after chemical treatment. A decline in bird diversity and abundance was observed in the 4th and 5th years after treatment, following structural decay of dead sand sagebrush. For example, northern bobwhite quail were no longer present on the treated pasture in the 4th year but remained abundant on the control pasture. Mean number of singing birds heard per station in control and 2, 4-D treated sand sagebrush pastures for 5 years were [61]:

Species Mean number of singing birds by year and treatment
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984
control 2, 4-D control 2, 4-D control 2, 4-D control 2, 4-D control 2, 4-D
Brewer's sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.15   0.10 0
Cassin's sparrow 2.15 3.60** 3.40*** 0.10 5.30*** 2.45 4.50* 3.20 4.10* 3.40
Field sparrow 0 0.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grasshopper sparrow 0.30 1.60*** 0.30 0 0.30 0.05 0.20 0 0 0.20*
Lark sparrow 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.10 0.30*   0.40* 0
Western meadowlark 2.25 3.30** 2.20 2.00 2.55 2.25 2,50 3.45** 2.30 2.60
Eastern meadowlark 0 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mourning dove 0.15 0.45 0.30 0.30 0.10 0.25 0.75 0.60 0.15 0.10
Northern bobwhite 1.45 2.15 1.60* 0.60 1.35 2.00 1.30** 0 0 0
Scaled quail 0 0 0 0 0.15 0.05 0.10 0 0 0
Unknown 0 0.05 0 0 0 0 0.35** 0 0.40** 0
All species 6.30 11.35*** 7.90*** 3.10 9.85*** 7.15 10.15** 7.25 7.90*** 6.30
* Mean is statistically greater than the paired mean or, when the paired value is 0, the mean is statistically greater than 0 at P<0.05 (*), P<0.01 (**), P<0.001 (***).

Palatability/nutritional value: Palatability of sand sagebrush for livestock is rated as [21]:

State Cattle Domestic sheep Horses
Utah fair fair poor
Colorado poor fair poor
Wyoming poor poor poor

Savage and Heller [63] describe the yearly average of calcium content in sand sagebrush as nearly 3 times greater than the yearly average for grasses and the phosphorus content of sand sagebrush as exceeding the average for all grasses by 24.6%. Rasmussen and Brotherson [59] analyzed mineral nutrient content of sand sagebrush in Utah. Their results, expressed as means and standard deviations (SD) were:

Calcium (ppm) 7971.00 (SD ± 995.00)
Magnesium (ppm) 1874.00 (SD ± 221.10)
Sodium (ppm) 47.70 (SD ± 5.85)
Potassium (ppm) 24,160.00 (SD ± 3,052.90)
Iron (ppm) 92.60 (SD ± 29.80)
Manganese (ppm) 30.43 (SD ± 9.55)
Zinc (ppm) 23.80 (SD ± 3.37)
Copper (ppm) 11.65 (SD ± 2.78)
Phosphorus (ppm) 2,603.00 (SD ± 236.59)
Nitrogen (%) 2.38 (SD ± 0.28)

Cover value: Lesser prairie-chickens in New Mexico occupy semiarid grasslands that typically include a large component of shrubs, either sand shinnery oak or sand sagebrush [19,30]. Jones [36] describes sand sagebrush as important for cover of lesser prairie-chickens in New Mexico, especially when grass production is poor. In Colorado in the Comanche Lesser Prairie Chicken Natural Area, sand sagebrush provides important cover for lesser prairie chickens [27].

Scaled quail in Texas utilize sand sagebrush as loafing cover [71]. Dittberner and Olson [21] rate sand sagebrush as poor cover for all classes of wildlife except upland game birds, nongame birds, and small mammals.

Cleaned seed of sand sagebrush averages  195,938 per ounce (6,910/gm) [48] and is available commercially [69]. Sand sagebrush helps prevent wind erosion by helping to stabilize light, sandy soils [48]. McArthur and others [49] rate sand sagebrush "high" for soil stabilization and "medium" for range restoration in Utah. They recommend sand sagebrush for restoration work in blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), sand dunes, big sagebrush, and juniper-pinyon (Juniperus spp.-Pinus spp.) in decreasing order of preference.

Sand sagebrush was tested for reclamation value at the Alton coal fields in Utah. Three years after being planted, sand sagebrush had a 75% survival rate and plants averaged 36 inches (91.4 cm) in height with 42 inches (106.7 cm) mean crown diameter. Sand sagebrush is listed by the authors as a recommended "secondary species" for reclaimed areas of the coal field [24].

Adams and McChesney [1] extracted phytochemicals from sand sagebrush that can be used for liquid fuels and petrochemical substitution. Sand sagebrush is an excellent indicator of sand [48] and is recommended as a border plant in group plantings on sandy sites in the southern Great Plains [34].

The Navajo tribe used sand sagebrush as stock feed, toilet paper [22], and to treat snakebite [77].

Mowing is especially suited for controlling sand sagebrush [55]. A review of pesticides to control sand sagebrush is provided by Wilson [82].

Artemisia filifolia: References

1. Adams, Robert P; McChesney, James D. 1983. Phytochemicals for liquid fuels and petrochemical substitutions: extraction procedures and screening results. Economic Botany. 37(2): 207-215. [38146]

2. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]

3. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]

4. Ault, Stacey C.; Stormer, Fred A. 1983. Seasonal food selection by scaled quail in northwest Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(1): 222-228. [12168]

5. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]

6. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]

7. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

8. Braun, Clait E. 1998. Sage grouse declines in western North America: what are the problems? In: Proceedings, Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1998 June 26-July 2; Jackson, WY. Cheyenne, WY: Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies: 139-156. [35365]

9. Bridges, J. O. 1941. Reseeding trials on arid rangeland. Bulletin 278. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 48 p. [5186]

10. Bryant, Fred C.; Demarais, Steve. 1991. Habitat management guidelines for white-tailed deer in south and west Texas. In: Lutz, R. Scott; Wester, David B., editors. Research highlights--1991: Noxious brush and weed control; range and wildlife management. Volume 22. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, College of Agricultural Sciences: 9-13. [18350]

11. Bryant, Fred C.; Morrison, Bruce. 1985. Managing plains mule deer in Texas and eastern New Mexico. Management Note 7. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Range and Wildlife Management. 5 p. [187]

12. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]

13. Butts, K. O.; Lewis, J. C. 1982. The importance of prairie dog towns to burrowing owls in Oklahoma. Proceedings, Oklahoma Academy of Sciences. 62: 46-52. [26110]

14. Collins, Ellen I. 1984. Preliminary classification of Wyoming plant communities. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Natural Heritage Program/The Nature Conservancy. 42 p. [661]

15. Collins, Scott L.; Bradford, James A.; Sims, Phillip L. 1987. Succession and fluctuation in Artemisia dominated grassland. Vegetatio. 73: 89-99. [9514]

16. Cooper, Charles F. 1961. Pattern in ponderosa pine forests. Ecology. 42(3): 493-499. [5780]

17. Costello, David F. 1944. Important species of the major forage types in Colorado and Wyoming. Ecological Monographs. 14: 107-134. [693]

18. Daley, Richard Halbert. 1972. The native sand sage vegetation of eastern Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 62 p. Thesis. [4905]

19. Davis, Charles A.; Riley, Terry Z.; Smith, Randall A.; Wisdom, Michael J. 1980. Spring-summer foods of lesser prairie chickens in New Mexico. In: Proceedings, prairie grouse symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University: 75-80. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [18419]

20. Diamond, David D.; Riskind, David H.; Orzell, Steve L. 1987. A framework for plant community classification and conservation in Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 39(3): 203-221. [24968]

21. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

22. Elmore, Francis H. 1944. Ethnobotany of the Navajo. Monograph Series: 1(7). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. 136 p. [35897]

23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

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