Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata


Jerry Gibson, Deer Park, AL

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service

Munger, Gregory T. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].


No entry


autumn olive

The currently accepted scientific name for autumn-olive is Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (Elaeagnaceae) [5,18,19,29,38,46,48,51,57,71,75,77]. Kartesz and Meacham [29] recognize the variety Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid.

Several cultivars have been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, and distributed for wildlife and other conservation uses (see Importance To Livestock And Wildlife) [1,8,10,23,25,65].


No special status

Autumn-olive is ranked as a "severe threat" (exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation) by the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council [54]. It is also ranked as a "severe threat" (exotic plant species which possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation; includes species which are or could become widespread in Kentucky) by the Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council [30].

Autumn-olive is listed among the top 10 exotic pest plants in Georgia [17], and among "highly invasive species" (species that may disrupt ecosystem processes and cause major alterations in plant community composition and structure and that establish readily in natural systems and spread rapidly) by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation [69].  It is listed as a Category II exotic plant species (considered to have the potential to displace native plants either on a localized or widespread scale) by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources and The Nature Conservancy of Vermont [68], and as a noxious weed in several West Virginia counties [64].

U.S. Forest Service Region 8 (Southern Region) lists autumn-olive as a category 1 weed (exotic plant species that are known to be invasive and persistent throughout all or most of their range within the Southern Region and that can spread into and persist in native plant communities and displace native plant species and therefore pose a demonstrable threat to the integrity of the natural plant communities in the Region). The introduction of Category 1 Species is prohibited on National Forest System Lands [65].


SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata
Autumn-olive occurs throughout the eastern United States, from Maine, west to Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Arkansas, and Louisiana, and south into Florida [5,9,26,27,36,38,46,51,57,63,71,75,77,78]. It also occurs in southern and eastern Ontario [4] and Hawaii [73]. Kartesz and Meacham [29] recognize E. umbellata var. parvifolia, with the same distribution as autumn-olive.

Northern distribution of invasive autumn-olive populations in North America may be limited by cold intolerance from USDA climate zone 5 north [55], although one cultivar has been described as "hardy" to zone 6 [25]. Autumn-olive is native to Asia and was introduced to North America around 1830 [5,19,51,57,65,71,77].

The following biogeographic classification systems demonstrate where autumn-olive could potentially be found based on floras and other literature, herbarium samples, and confirmed observations. Predicting distribution of nonnative species is difficult due to gaps in understanding of their biological and ecological characteristics, and because they may still be expanding their range. These lists are speculative and may not be accurately restrictive or complete.

FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak-pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)


14 Great Plains

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie
K073 Northern cordgrass prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie
K077 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K083 Cedar glades
K084 Cross Timbers
K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest
K094 Conifer bog
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest
K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K099 Maple-basswood forest
K100 Oak-hickory forest
K101 Elm-ash forest
K102 Beech-maple forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest
K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest
K109 Transition between K104 and K106
K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest
K111 Oak-hickory-pine
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest
K114 Pocosin
K115 Sand pine scrub

1 Jack pine
5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce-tamarack
14 Northern pin oak
15 Red pine
16 Aspen
17 Pin cherry
18 Paper birch
19 Gray birch-red maple
20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine-hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
24 Hemlock-yellow birch
25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch
26 Sugar maple-basswood
27 Sugar maple
28 Black cherry-maple
30 Red spruce-yellow birch
31 Red spruce-sugar maple-beech
32 Red spruce
33 Red spruce-balsam fir
34 Red spruce-Fraser fir
35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir
37 Northern white-cedar
38 Tamarack
39 Black ash-American elm-red maple
40 Post oak-blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
46 Eastern redcedar
50 Black locust
51 White pine-chestnut oak
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak
60 Beech-sugar maple
61 River birch-sycamore
62 Silver maple-American elm
63 Cottonwood
64 Sassafras-persimmon
65 Pin oak-sweetgum
69 Sand pine
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak
72 Southern scrub oak
73 Southern redcedar
74 Cabbage palmetto
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine-oak
78 Virginia pine-oak
79 Virginia pine
80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine-hardwood
83 Longleaf pine-slash pine
84 Slash pine
85 Slash pine-hardwood
87 Sweetgum-yellow-poplar
88 Willow oak-water oak-diamondleaf (laurel) oak
89 Live oak
91 Swamp chestnut oak-cherrybark oak
92 Sweetgum-willow oak
93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash
94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm
95 Black willow
97 Atlantic white-cedar
107 White spruce
108 Red maple
109 Hawthorn
110 Black oak
235 Cottonwood-willow
236 Bur oak

601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
605 Sandsage prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
609 Wheatgrass-grama
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama
801 Savanna
802 Missouri prairie
803 Missouri glades
804 Tall fescue
805 Riparian
808 Sand pine scrub
809 Mixed hardwood and pine
810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills
815 Upland hardwood hammocks
817 Oak hammocks

Autumn-olive is found across many habitats in North America (see Site Characteristics), and may be associated with a variety of plant taxa, functional guilds and communities. As of this writing (2003), there is very little published information concerning habitat types and plant communities where autumn-olive might invade. Autumn-olive is not a climax dominant or indicator species in habitat type classifications.

Catling et al. [4] described the following habitats in southern and eastern Ontario where escaped autumn-olive was found most frequently: deciduous and mixed forests dominated by black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Q. alba), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and red maple (Acer rubrum); eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) glades; prairie/savanna relicts dominated by indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans); coniferous plantations; seasonally wet, "open floodplain thickets;" gravelly till in northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) floodplain slope woodland; raised sandy knolls in open to sparsely shaded graminoid fens; and low sand dunes in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) savanna.


SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata
The following description provides characteristics of autumn-olive that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant to be used for identification. Keys for identifying autumn-olive are available (e.g. [5,18,38,46,51,71,77]). Photos and descriptions of autumn-olive are also available online at the and Invasive Plant Atlas of New England websites.

Autumn-olive is a many-branched, deciduous shrub or shrubby tree, growing 10 to16 feet (3-5 m) tall [5,14,18,19,46,77]. Leaves are alternate [5,18,19,46,51,57], simple [19,46], and variable in size [19], ranging from 0.4 to 3 inches (1-8 cm) long and 0.4 to 1.6 inches (1-4 cm) wide [5,46,51]. Thorns several inches in length are formed on spur branches [55]. Autumn-olive fruits are single-seeded drupes, 0.2 to 0.4 inches (4-10 mm) in diameter, produced on pedicels [14,18,19,38,46,51,57].

Autumn-olive forms root nodules induced by symbiosis with actinomycetes in the soil. This symbiosis permits the fixation and subsequent utilization of atmospheric nitrogen [42,61,71].

The biology and ecology of autumn-olive are not well-studied in North America. More research is needed to better understand autumn-olive's key biological traits, habitat requirements and limitations, and interactions with native North American flora and fauna.


As of this writing (2003) there is very little published information describing regeneration biology in autumn-olive. Research is needed to determine the precise nature of asexual regeneration, conditions that promote or constrain seedling establishment and early growth, and the role of soil-stored seed in autumn-olive invasiveness.

Breeding system: Elaeagnus spp. are polygamodioecious [5,19,41,74].

Pollination: Autumn-olive is open-pollinated [65], often by insects [41].

Seed production: Mature plants can produce about 30 pounds (14 kg) of fruit annually. Thirty pounds of fruit is generally equivalent to about 3 pounds (1.4 kg) of seed, or about 66,000 seeds [65]. Under favorable conditions, autumn-olive can produce fruit by 3 to 5 years of age, usually at about 4 to 8 feet (1.2-2.4 m) in height. Fruit production is reduced by shading [1].

Seed dispersal: Seeds are dispersed by frugivorous birds and, to a lesser extent, small mammals [11,37,40].

Seed banking: No information

Germination: Autumn-olive seed germination is enhanced by a period of cold stratification. Fowler and Fowler [14] determined germination rates for unstratified seeds were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those receiving 8 or more weeks of cold stratification at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 °C). Optimal conditions for autumn-olive germination were 16-20 weeks of cold stratification followed by 2 weeks of night/day temperatures of 50/62 degrees Fahrenheit (10/20). These conditions resulted in >90% germination.

However, cold stratification is not a prerequisite for germination. Fowler and Fowler [14] found 51% of unstratified seeds germinated after 10 weeks of night/day temperatures of 50/62 degrees Fahrenheit (10/20 °C). Jinks and Ciccarese [28] found that >70% of seeds from their "control" group germinated after 8 weeks despite receiving no cold temperature treatment.

Seedling establishment/growth: No information

Asexual regeneration: Solecki [53] and Szafoni [59] indicated burned, mowed, and cut plants "resprout vigorously." The Invasive Plant Atlas of New England website [37] reports that if autumn olive is cut, "it resprouts abundantly," and burning only results in resprouting "from the stump." Russian-olive (E. angustifolia), another introduced and invasive Elaeagnus in North America, sprouts from the root crown and sends up root suckers (see FEIS botanical and ecological summary for Russian-olive).

Autumn-olive has been planted throughout much of eastern North America for various purposes (Management Considerations), and has subsequently escaped into a variety of natural and seminatural habitats [4,10,40,71]. For example, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England [37] lists the following general habitats where autumn-olive may be found in New England: abandoned field, abandoned gravel pit, early-successional forest, edge, pasture, planted forest, railroad right-of-way, roadside, utility right-of-way, vacant lot, yard, or garden. It is probably most prolific on disturbed or ruderal sites [5,8,26,40,77].

Autumn-olive grows best on deep, relatively coarse-textured soils that are moderately-well to well drained [1,65]. It does less well on very dry soil and usually fails on very shallow, poorly drained, or excessively wet soil. Autumn-olive does not require highly fertile soil, and it appears to thrive equally well on soils ranging from "moderately acid to moderately alkaline" [1]. In Ontario, escaped autumn-olive is found in a variety of dry to mesic sandy, forested and open to sparsely shaded habitats, with soil pH from 5-7. It is most invasive in areas of dry sandy soils. Although it has been cultivated on fine-textured, periodically wet soils, it is generally not invasive on such sites in southern Ontario [4].

Autumn-olive appears best adapted to early-successional habitats in North America. It has been called "moderately" shade tolerant [1], but is thought to be generally absent from areas with very low light intensity, such as under a dense forest canopy [40]. Edgin and Ebinger [11] noted autumn-olive plants were restricted to "open canopy areas" within the interior of an "old-growth" forest along the Wabash River in southwestern Indiana. Based on this observation, they suggested autumn-olive is "not well adapted to low-light conditions."

The possibility of autumn-olive invasion in forested habitats should not be precluded on the basis of successional status. Ebinger and Lehnen [10] describe the following habitats in east-central Illinois where autumn-olive has invaded from nearby plantings: 1) a small plantation of pines (Pinus spp.), 3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) tall; 2) small ravines in the "early tree stage of succession," containing "scattered individuals" of black walnut (Juglans nigra), prairie crabapple (Malus ioensis), shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria), northern red oak (Q. rubra), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and American elm (Ulmus americana), mostly less than 4 inches (10 cm) dbh; 3) a grazed upland forest dominated by white oak, mostly between 12 and 20 inches (30-50 cm) dbh. Data from sample plots (see table below) indicate autumn-olive stems were numerous within these sites, with a substantial proportion of plants greater than 20 inches (50 cm) tall. While it is difficult to draw firm conclusions from these and previous site descriptions without more detailed information, it appears autumn-olive has at least some ability to establish under a forest canopy.

Habitat autumn-olive density (stems/ha) proportion autumn-olive plants >20 inches tall
pine plantation 5,225 30%
hardwood ravine 33,975 20%
oak (Quercus spp.) forest 67,925 7%
Data adapted from Ebinger and Lehnen [10].

The following table describes approximate flowering times reported from a variety of North American locations:

  February March April May June
Northeastern U.S. [18]       X X
New England [37]     X X  
Illinois [38]     X X  
Florida [5] X X X    
Blue Ridge Mountains [75]     X X  
West Virginia [57]     X X  
North & South Carolina [46]     X X  

In the central and southern Appalachian regions, autumn-olive fruit ripens in August and September [46,57]. Fruit generally remains on the plant until late winter [14]. Autumn-olive generally produces leaves in early spring, prior to most native plants [55,59].


SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata
Information about autumn-olive and fire is lacking. Research that examines the interactions of fire and autumn-olive, the effects these interactions may have on native communities and ecosystems and their respective fire regimes is needed.

Fire adaptations: As of this writing (2003) there is no published information describing adaptations of autumn-olive to fire. It is likely, though speculative, that autumn-olive generally responds to fire damage by sprouting (see Asexual regeneration). Russian-olive (E. angustifolia), another introduced and invasive Elaeagnus in North America, sprouts from the root crown following fire (see FEIS botanical and ecological summary for Russian-olive).

Fire regimes: The following table lists fire return intervals for communities or ecosystems throughout North America where autumn-olive may occur. This list is presented as a guideline to illustrate historic fire regimes and is not to be interpreted as a strict description of fire regimes for autumn-olive. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1,000
silver maple-American elm A. saccharinum-Ulmus americana < 35 to 200
sugar maple A. saccharum > 1,000
sugar maple-basswood A. saccharum-Tilia americana > 1,000 [72]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [33,43]
Nebraska sandhills prairie A. gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie A. littoralis-Spartina spartinae < 10 [43]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35
blue grama-buffalo grass B. gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides < 35 [43,76]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to > 200 [72]
northern cordgrass prairie Distichlis spicata-Spartina spp. 1-3 [43]
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1,000
black ash Fraxinus nigra < 35 to 200 [72]
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-7 [43]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera < 35 [72]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 5-47+ [43,45,76]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [7]
southeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200 [72]
red spruce* P. rubens 35-200
jack pine Pinus banksiana <35 to 200 [7]
shortleaf pine P. echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak P. echinata-Quercus spp. < 10
slash pine P. elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood P. elliottii-variable < 35
sand pine P. elliottii var. elliottii 25-45 [72]
longleaf-slash pine P. palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [39,72]
longleaf pine-scrub oak P. palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10
Table Mountain pine P. pungens < 35 to 200 [72]
red pine (Great Lakes region) P. resinosa 10-200 (10**) [7,15]
red-white-jack pine* P. resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [7,21]
pitch pine P. rigida 6-25 [3,22]
pocosin P. serotina 3-8
eastern white pine P. strobus 35-200
eastern white pine-eastern hemlock P. strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200
eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple P. strobus-Q. rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200
loblolly pine P. taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine P. taeda-P. echinata 10 to < 35
Virginia pine P. virginiana 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak P. virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to < 35
sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-U. americana < 35 to 200 [72]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides < 35 to 200 [43]
aspen-birch P. tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [7,72]
black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-A. saccharum > 1,000
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. < 10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Q. alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra < 35
northern pin oak Q. ellipsoidalis < 35
bear oak Q. ilicifolia < 35
bur oak Q. macrocarpa < 10 [72]
oak savanna Q. macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [43,72]
chestnut oak Q. prinus 3-8
northern red oak Q. rubra 10 to < 35
post oak-blackjack oak Q. stellata-Q. marilandica < 10
black oak Q. velutina < 35
live oak Q. virginiana 10 to< 100 [72]
cabbage palmetto-slash pine Sabal palmetto-P. elliottii < 10 [39,72]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [43]
eastern hemlock-yellow birch T. canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis > 200 [72]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. < 35 to 200 [7,72]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary

Tall shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata
There is some indication that autumn-olive is damaged by fire [37,53]. However, there is no specific information available as of this writing (2003) describing the immediate effects of fire on autumn-olive.

No additional information is available.

Specific information about postfire regeneration is lacking, but published sources indicate that, in general, autumn-olive sprouts following stem damage [37,53,59]. Solecki [53] and Szafoni [59] reported that autumn-olive "resprouts vigorously" following damage from fire.

No additional information is available.

As of this writing (2003) it is unclear what impacts fire might have on invasive populations of autumn-olive or on communities where autumn-olive is invasive. Research is needed to determine the immediate effects of fire on autumn-olive, its ability to survive 1 or more fires, and its relative competitiveness in postfire communities.

It appears that autumn-olive will sprout in response to damage from fire, indicating a single burn is probably not sufficient to eradicate it [37,53,59]. It is unclear how effective multiple prescribed burns might be for controlling invasive autumn-olive. While a single fire is unlikely to eradicate autumn-olive, periodic burning might control its spread and eventually reduce its presence. Any management activity that removes aboveground tissue, prevents seed production, and depletes energy reserves is likely to reduce autumn-olive invasiveness, especially when conducted persistently.

Postfire colonization via nearby seed sources seems likely (see Seed dispersal), provided there is enough light for seedling establishment in the postfire environment. However, more information is needed describing seedbed requirements for autumn-olive seed germination and seedling establishment.

Apart from questions about effectiveness of prescribed fire as an autumn-olive control measure, use of fire in areas where autumn-olive is present may or may not be appropriate, depending on management goals and the particular ecosystem involved. Using fire to control autumn-olive in habitats where fire is infrequent may do substantial damage to fire-intolerant native species. Conversely, fire may be appropriate where management goals include maintaining native seral species or otherwise enhancing ecosystem structure and function through use of prescribed fire. For more information regarding fire effects on native flora, see the appropriate FEIS species summaries on this website.


SPECIES: Elaeagnus umbellata
Autumn-olive has been promoted as a beneficial wildlife species and planted in wildlife management areas in the eastern U.S. to provide food and cover [8,9,10,14,20,23]. Fruit remains on the plant until late winter (see Seasonal Development), potentially becoming an important wildlife food during periods of seasonal food scarcity [14]. Fruits are consumed by a variety of wildlife, including songbirds, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, mourning doves, ring-necked pheasants, wild turkeys, mallards, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and black bears [1,23,57]. Songbirds that eat autumn-olive fruit include: gray catbirds, hermit thrushes, wood thrushes, house finches, American robins, cardinals, cedar waxwings, common grackles, evening grosbeaks, fox sparrows, house sparrows, song sparrows, white-throated sparrows, mockingbirds, myrtle warblers, purple finches, rufous-sided towhees, starlings, tree swallows, and veerys [1,40,58]. Autumn-olive is also browsed by white-tailed deer [65].

Palatability/nutritional value: No information

Cover value: Autumn-olive provides cover for wildlife, especially songbirds, game birds, and rabbits [65].

Autumn-olive has been promoted for reclamation of mine spoils and other disturbed soils [1,13]. It has been planted for reclamation of surface coal mine sites because it is tolerant of low pH soil conditions often found on these sites [14,23,68]. It has also been suggested for use in stabilizing eroded soils in exposed coastal areas due to its salt spray tolerance [60]. An additional benefit to planting autumn-olive in these and other situations, where reclamation of disturbed and frequently nutrient-poor soils is an important objective, is its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen [13,60].

Autumn-olive has been a recommended species for planting as a tall shrub component in windbreaks in the Great Plains, in part due to its wildlife food and cover value [20,65].

Autumn-olive is used in plantations for companion planting with black walnut to enhance black walnut productivity. It is thought autumn-olive enhances black walnut growth by increasing ecosystem nitrogen pools through nitrogen fixation and by decreasing herbaceous competition [44,49,50,61,69]. Field experiments have demonstrated that interplanting autumn-olive with black walnut can increase seasonal soil nitrogen mineralization rates [42], significantly (p < 0.01) increase black walnut leaf nitrogen concentration [70], and substantially improve black walnut growth and yield [6,42,44,44,70], compared with growing black walnut alone. Interplanting autumn-olive may also indirectly enhance black walnut growth and yield by reducing incidence of leaf fungal diseases through interactions with fungivorous microarthropods in the litter layer [31,32]. White ash (Fraxinus americana) growth and yield also increases when interplanted with autumn olive [44].

Impacts: In general, invasive autumn-olive impacts native biotic communities in eastern North America by displacing native plants. Invasive populations can supplant native habitat, sometimes forming dense thickets. Prodigious seed production and widespread seed dispersal by frugivorous birds probably contribute to its invasiveness [55]. An Illinois study reported autumn-olive concentrations of 5,225 stems per hectare in a pine plantation, 27,500 stems per hectare in a grazed upland woods, and 33,975 stems per hectare in hardwood-dominated ravines [10]. Autumn-olive densities of 125,000 plants hectare were recorded in the understory of a yellow-poplar-sweetgum plantation in southwestern Indiana in 2000. This population was established from nearby plantings in the early 1970's. Although 90% of these individuals were 2 feet (0.6 m) or less in height, they formed "a nearly impenetrable thicket" and were "commonly the only understory species present" [11].

Nestleroad and others [40] have suggested that impacts of invasive autumn-olive may be greatest in communities adapted to infertile soils, where its nitrogen-fixing capabilities might confer substantial competitive advantage against native species. It is conceivable that autumn-olive could alter the nitrogen cycle in "infertility-dependent" natural communities, shifting the potential native community on these sites. Nestleroad and others [40] expressed concern that natural communities of sandy, infertile habitats in southern and eastern Ontario, and throughout the Great Lakes region, are already seriously impacted by other pressures.

Control: Controlling invasive autumn-olive may require frequent monitoring and repeated treatments to achieve success. Because seeds can be dispersed long distances by birds, it is helpful to eradicate autumn-olive populations in areas surrounding the threatened area, when possible. If the infested area is large, or if eradication of surrounding populations is not feasible, land managers may wish to focus control efforts in the most ecologically significant and/or least invaded areas first. In closed-canopy forests, control can likely be achieved through routine monitoring and eradication of new individuals by hand pulling or spot-spraying with herbicide [11].

Prevention: Where appropriate, maintaining dense, frequently mowed grass or other dense native vegetation can help prevent establishment of autumn-olive seedlings [40].

Integrated management: No information

Physical/mechanical: Hand pulling young seedlings and sprouts can be effective, particularly from moist soil [53,59]. Seedlings are easiest to identify in early spring because autumn-olive produces leaves earlier than most native shrubs [55,59]. Mowed or cut plants reportedly "resprout vigorously" [53,59], so these methods alone will probably not effectively control mature plants. Even repeated cutting is apparently ineffective without treating stumps and/or resprouts with herbicide [53]. Treating cut surfaces with glyphosate is an effective control measure and can minimize negative impacts on native vegetation when carefully applied (see Chemical control) [53,59].

Fire: See Fire Management Considerations.

Biological: No information

Chemical: Several herbicides have been used alone or in combination to provide effective control of autumn-olive, including glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, and dicamba. This is not intended as an exhaustive review of chemical control methods. For more information regarding appropriate use of herbicides against invasive plant species in natural areas, see The Nature Conservancy's Weed control methods handbook. For more information specific to herbicide use against autumn-olive, see The Nature Conservancy's Element Stewardship abstract of autumn-olive and the Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group (CIPWG) and Illinois Nature Preserves Commission websites.

Dicamba and 2,4-D have been used as a foliar application to effectively control autumn-olive [35,53,59]. Triclopyr has also been used effectively on resprouts following cutting [53]. Because this method is conducted during the growing season, and because 100% coverage of foliage is recommended for most effective control, Szafoni [59] suggests that foliar application is best suited to shorter plants.

For larger plants, basal-bark application of triclopyr or 2,4-D can control invasive autumn-olive [11,35,53]. Basal-bark treatment is the application of herbicide solution directly to the bark the lower portion of woody plants. Herbicide then penetrates the bark and is absorbed by the plant [53]. Rather than a broad band application, a thin line of herbicide applied around the entire circumference of the stem 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) above the ground is sufficient, and less likely to harm nearby, desirable plants [53,59].

Direct application of glyphosate to cut stumps can also be effective, particularly late in the growing season (July-September) [53,59]. According to Szafoni [59], reduced application rates of 10-20% solution (compared with 50-100% recommended on some glyphosate product labels) are sufficient for effective treatment of cut stems. Careful application of herbicide directly to target plants can reduce damage to nearby, desirable vegetation [59].

Multiple herbicide treatments may be required to completely kill all plants. Edgin and Ebinger [11] describe treating an invasive population of autumn-olive in Illinois with basal-bark applications of triclopyr during springs of 1996 and 1997. A subsequent search in early summer 1997 yielded no evidence of live autumn-olive in treated areas. But by 2000, autumn-olive had re-established within these same treated areas. Because a dense population of well-established autumn-olive remained in an area adjacent to treatment plots, many of the newly established plants were assumed to have originated from the seed bank or from seeds transported into the plots by birds after herbicide treatments. But nearly 11% of the larger stems (2.6 to 4.9 feet (80-150 cm) tall) had an "enlarged basal caudex" and were considered to be resprouts that were only top-killed by the herbicide treatment.

Cultural: No information

Elaeagnus umbellata: References

1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]

2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

3. Buchholz, Kenneth; Good, Ralph E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual aboveground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Moll. from the New Jersey Pine Barren Plains. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 24-34. [8639]

4. Catling, P. M.; Oldham, M. J.; Sutherland, D. A.; Brownell, V. R.; Larson, B. M. H. 1997. The recent spread of autumn-olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, into southern Ontario and its current status. Canadian Field Naturalist. 111(3): 376-380. [44941]

5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]

6. Dawson, J. O.; Van Sambeck, J. W. 1993. Interplanting woody nurse crops promotes differential growth of black walnut saplings. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E., eds. Proceedings, 9th central hardwood forest conference; 1993 March 8-10; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 455-464. [27022]

7. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]

8. Ebinger, John E. 1983. Exotic shrubs: A potential problem in natural area management in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 3(1): 3-6. [45288]

9. Ebinger, John E.; McClain, William. 1996. Recent exotic woody plant introductions into the Illinois flora. In: Warwick, Charles, ed. 15th North American prairie conference: Proceedings; 1996 October 23-26; St. Charles, IL. Bend, OR: The Natural Areas Association: 55-58. [30251]

10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]

11. Edgin, Bob; Ebinger, John E. 2001. Control of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) at Beall Woods Nature Preserve, Illinois, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 21(4): 386-388. [45100]

12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

13. Fessenden, R. J. 1979. Use of actinorhizal plants for land reclamation and amenity planting in the U.S.A. and Canada. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 403-419. [4308]

14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]

15. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]

16. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

17. Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2002. Proposed exotic pest plant species for Georgia, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: [2003, August 25]. [44947]

18. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]

19. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]

20. Hays, James F., Jr. 1990. Wildlife considerations in windbreak renovation. In: Great Plains Agricultural Council, complier. Windbreaks: Living with the wind: Proceedings, windbreak renovation workshop; 1990 October 23-25; Hutchinson, KS. Great Plains Agriculture Council Publ. No. 133. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 35-41. [15254]

21. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forest. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Proceedings of a symposium; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]

22. Hendrickson, William H. 1972. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 29-33. In cooperation with: Fire Services of Canada, Mexico, and the United States; Members of the Fire Management Study Group; North American Forestry Commission; FAO. [17276]

23. Henry, Jimmy. 1980. A bonanza for wildlife. Soil Conservation. 45(8): 13. [21596]

24. Hensley, David L.; Carpenter, Philip L. 1986. Survival and coverage by several N2-fixing trees and shrubs on lime-amended acid mine spoil. Tree Planters' Notes. 29: 27-31. [2845]

25. Higginbotham, Julie S. 1990. New plants for 1990. Part II: selections from universities, botanic gardens, arboretums and foundations for Zone 5 and warmer. American Nurseryman. 171(4): 40-49. [45107]

26. Hill, Steven R. 1996. The flora of Latimer Point and vicinity, New London County, Connecticut. Rhodora. 98(894): 180-216. [44935]

27. Hunter, John C.; Mattice, Jennifer A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 129(3): 220-227. [42500]

28. Jinks, Richard L.; Ciccarese, Lorenzo. 1997. Effects of soaking, washing, and warm pretreatment on the germination of Russian-olive and autumn-olive seeds. Tree Planters' Notes. 48(1/2): 18-23. [45101]

29. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

30. Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2001. Invasive exotic plant list, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: [2003, August 25]. [44948]

31. Kessler, Kenneth J., Jr. 1985. Companion planting of black walnut with autumn olive to control mycosphaerella leaf spot of walnut. In: Dawson, Jeffrey O.; Majerus, Kimberly, A., eds. 5th central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings; 1985 April 15-17; Urbana-Champaign, IL. SAF Publication 85-05. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 285-288. [45290]

32. Kessler, Kenneth J., Jr. 1990. Destruction of Gnomonia leptostyla perithecia on Juglans nigra leaves by microarthropods associated with Elaeagnus umbellata litter. Mycologia. 82(3): 387-390. [45102]

33. Kucera, Clair L. 1981. Grasslands and fire. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 90-111. [4389]

34. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

35. Kuhns, Larry J. 1986. Controlling autumn olive with herbicides. Proceedings, Northeastern Weed Science Society. 40: 289-294. [44918]

36. Madarish, Darlene M.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Adams, Mary Beth. 2002. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-291. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 37 p. [43783]

37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: [2003, September 9]. [45108]

38. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

39. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]

40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]

41. Olson, David F., Jr.; Barbour, Jill R. 2002. Elaeagnus L. elaeagnus. In: Bonner, Franklin T., tech. coord. Woody plant seed manual, [Online]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). Available: [2003, August 27]. [44939]

42. Paschke, Mark W.; Dawson, Jeffrey O.; David, Mark B. 1989. Soil nitrogen mineralization under black walnut interplanted with autumn-olive or black alder. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 120-128. [9376]

43. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]

44. Ponder, Felix, Jr. 1988. Weed control and autumn-olive affect early growth and survival of black walnut in a hardwood clearcut. New Forests. 2: 195-201. [21595]

45. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]

46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]

47. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

48. Rolfsmeier, Steven B.; Steinauer, Robert F.; Sutherland, David M. 1999. New floristic records for Nebraska--5. Transactions, Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 25: 15-22. [37459]

49. Schlesinger, Richard C.; Funk, David T. 1977. Manager's handbook for black walnut. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-38. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 22 p. [11641]

50. Schlesinger, Richard C.; Williams, Robert D. 1984. Growth response of black walnut to interplanted trees. Forest Ecology and Management. 9: 235-243. [21998]

51. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]

52. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]

54. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Tennessee Chapter. 2001. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee, [Online]. Available: [2001, October 19]. [38459]

55. Sternberg, Guy. 1996. Elaeagnus umbellata--autumn olive. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 54. [44889]

56. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]

58. Suthers, Hannah B.; Bickal, Jean M.; Rodewald, Paul G. 2000. Use of successional habitat and fruit resources by songbirds during autumn migration in central New Jersey. The Wilson Bulletin. 112(2): 249-260. [41724]

59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]

60. Tiffney, W., Jr.; Eveleigh, D.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, S. 1979. Evaluation of some nitrogen-fixing plants for coastal zone management applications. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 420-428. [4309]

61. Torrey, John G. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. Bioscience. 28(9): 586-592. [8517]

62. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine Program (PPQ). 1999. West Virginia summary of plant protection regulations: Noxious weeds. In: National Plant Board, Federal and state plant quarantine summaries, [Online]. Available: [2001, January 19]. [36921]

63. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 2001. Regional invasive exotic plant species list. Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern, [Online]. In: Invasive plants of southern states list. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: [2003, August 25]. [44944]

64. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. 2003. PLANTS database (2003), [Online]. Available: /. [34262]

65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]

66. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation; Department of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame and Natural Heritage Program. 1998. Invasive exotic plants of Vermont: A list of the state's most troublesome weeds. Vermont Invasive Exotic Plant Fact Sheet Series. Waterbury, VT. 2 p. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy of Vermont. [38461]

67. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. 2003. Invasive alien plant species of Virginia, [Online]. Available: [20003, August 25]. [44942]

68. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal mine soils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15576]

69. von Althen, F. W. 1989. Early height growth increased in black walnut-silver maple intermixtures. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 170-174. [9382]

70. von Althen, F. W. 1990. The effects of alternate-row interplanting of five species on black walnut growth. Information Report 0-X-409. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Forestry Canada, Ontario Region, Great Lakes Forestry Centre. 14 p. [44937]

71. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]

72. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]

73. Wagner, Warren L.; Herbst, Derral R.; Sohmer, S. H. 1989. Contributions to the flora of Hawaii. II. Begoniaceae--Violaceae and the monocotyledons. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 29: 88-130. [41847]

74. Williams, Robert D.; Hanks, Sidney H. 1976. Hardwood nurseryman's guide. Agric. Handb. 473. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 78 p. [4182]

75. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]

76. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

77. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]

78. Yahner, R. H.; Storm, G. L.; Melton, R. E.; [and others]. 1991. Floral inventory and vegetative cover type mapping of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. Tech. Rep. NPS/MAR/NRTR - 91/050. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Region. 149 p. [17987]

FEIS Home Page