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SPECIES:  Philadelphus hirsutus
Hairy mockorange. Photo used with permission of Will Cook, carolinanature.com.

Introductory

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Philadelphus hirsutus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.usda.gov/database/feis/plants/shrub/phihir/all.html []. Images were added on 17 August 2018. ABBREVIATION : PHIHIR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PHHI2 PHHIH PHHII PHHIN COMMON NAMES : hairy mockorange Cumberland mockorange streambank mockorange TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for hairy mockorange is Philadelphus hirsutus Nutt. (Hydrangeaceae) [4]. The genus Philadelphus is a polymorphic complex in need of critical study [14,19]. Hu [7] recognized the following three hairy mockorange varieties: Philadelphus. hirsutus var. hirsutus Philadelphus. hirsutus var. intermedius Hu Philadelphus. hirsutus var. nanus Hu Other authors do not recognize varieties of hairy mockorange [4,8,12,19]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Hairy mockorange occurs in the southern Appalachian Mountains from Virginia south to Georgia and Alabama. A disjunct population occurs on the Ozark Plateau in Arkansas [4,6,8,19].
Distribution of hairy mockorange. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, August 17] [17].
ECOSYSTEMS : 
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory


STATES : 
     AL  AR  GA  KY  NC  SC  TN  VA



BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 
NO-ENTRY


KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : 
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K103  Mixed mesophytic forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest


SAF COVER TYPES : 
NO-ENTRY


SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 
NO-ENTRY


HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : 
Hairy mockorange occurs in deciduous forests [5,7].  Information
concerning vegetation associated with hairy mockorange is lacking in the
literature.

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Mockoranges (Philadelphus spp.) are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy white flowers and general form [4,14,20]. Hairy mockorange is not one of the more commonly cultivated mockoranges [20]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Hairy mockorange is a native, deciduous shrub that grows 3 to 6 feet (1-2 m) tall. The spreading branches twist around each other and arch to the ground. Branches more than 2 years old have exfoliating and shredding bark. The fruit is a four-valved dehiscent capsule. The seeds are 0.04 inch (1 mm) long [7,16].
The stems and leaves of hairy mockorange have white hairs, particularly the undersides of the leaves. Photo used with permission of Will Cook, carolinanature.com.

RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : 
   Phanerophyte


REGENERATION PROCESSES : 
Hairy mockorange regenerates by both vegetative reproduction and seed.
Arching branches that touch the ground root readily [7].


SITE CHARACTERISTICS : 
Hairy mockorange occurs along streams and on bluffs, cliffs, and rocky
banks.  It grows along limestone ledges and in piles of sandstone or
quartzite rocks [4,7,8,12,14,19].


SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : 
Hairy mockorange grows on open sites and also in forests and along
streams [7], so it is probably tolerant of shade.


SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : 
Hairy mockorange flowers from mid-April to late May [7].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Information the fire ecology of hairy mockorange is lacking in the literature. Hairy mockorange grows on sites such as hairys and rocky ledges that may not experience fire frequently. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire probably top-kills hairy mockorange. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Hairy mockorange probably sprouts from the root crown when top-killed by fire. Mockorange (Philadelphus lewisii), a species native to the western United States, sprouts readily after fire [11]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Philadelphus hirsutus
REFERENCES : 1. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 2. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633] 3. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 4. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 5. Hu, Shiu-ying. 1954. A monograph of the genus Philadelphus. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 35(4): 275-333. [23676] 6. Hu, Shiu-ying. 1955. A monograph of the genus Philadelphus. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 36(1): 52-109. [23677] 7. Hu, Shiu-ying. 1956. A monograph of the genus Philadelphus. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 37(1): 15-90. [23679] 8. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266] 9. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 10. Leege, Thomas A. 1968. Prescribed burning for elk in northern Idaho. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1968 March 14-15; Tallahassee, FL. No 8. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 235-253. [5287] 11. Leege, Thomas A.; Hickey, William O. 1971. Sprouting of northern Idaho shrubs after prescribed burning. Journal of Wildlife Management. 35(3): 508-515. [1437] 12. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 13. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 14. Spongberg, Stephen A. 1972. The genera of Saxifragaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 53(4): 409-498. [23818] 15. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 16. Styer, C. H.; Stern, W. L. 1979. Comparative anatomy and systematics of woody Saxifragaceae, Philadelphus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 79(4): 267-289. [23773] 17. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 18. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119] 19. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908] 20. Wyman, Donald. 1965. The mock-oranges. Arnoldia. 23(5): 29-36. [23804]

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