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SPECIES: Rhus aromatica


Ray Aslin Kansas Forest Service

Paul Wray Iowa State University Forestry images

Taylor, Jane E. 2004. Rhus aromatica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].




fragrant sumac
aromatic sumac

The scientific name of fragrant sumac is Rhus aromatica Ait. (Anacardiaceae) [25,26,37,69,78,83]. Based on differences in geographic distribution, leaf size and shape, and pubescence of stems, leaves and fruits, 3 varieties are most often recognized [25,37,54]:

R. a. var. arenaria (Green) Fern. [11,25,37,54]
R. a. var. aromatica
R. a. var. serotina (Greene) Rehd. [25,37,54]

Although most florae recognize 3 varieties of fragrant sumac listed above, a 4th variety, R. a. var. illinoensis (Greene) Rehd., is recognized by some authors [25,54].

Hybrids: Fragrant sumac may hybridize with skunkbush sumac (R. trilobata) [4].



The PLANTS database [79] lists fragrant sumac as having protection status in three states:

Connecticut: R. a. - special concern
Indiana: R. a. var. arenaria - threatened
Ohio: R. a. var. arenaria - presumed extirpated

In addition, the Wisconsin Botanical Information System [80] currently lists fragrant sumac as being a species of special concern.


SPECIES: Rhus aromatica
Species: There is some confusion in the literature as to the distribution of fragrant sumac because of the difficulty in differentiating fragrant sumac from skunkbush sumac [4,18,86]. For this review, fragrant sumac is discussed in its eastern range from Quebec, Ontario and Vermont, south to the Florida panhandle, west to eastern South Dakota, and central Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. [4,13,45,68].

Varieties: R. aromatica var. aromatica occurs throughout the distribution of fragrant sumac. R. aromatica var. arenaria occurs in northern Ohio, northern Indiana, and northeastern Illinois [11,25,37,54]. R. aromatica var. serotina occurs in Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas [25,37]. R. aromatica var. illinoensis occurs in Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma [25].

Plants database provides a distributional map of fragrant sumac and its infrataxa [79] .

FRES14 Oak-pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)


14 Great Plains

K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K074 Bluestem prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K083 Cedar glades
K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper-oak savanna
K100 Oak-hickory forest
K101 Elm-ash forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K109 Transition between K104 and K106
K111 Oak-hickory-pine
K112 Southern mixed forest

14 Northern pin oak
27 Sugar maple
40 Post oak-blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
46 Eastern redcedar
51 White pine-chestnut oak
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
76 Shortleaf pine-oak
78 Virginia pine-oak
82 Loblolly pine-hardwood
108 Red maple
110 Black oak

601 Bluestem prairie
710 Bluestem prairie
731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)
802 Missouri prairie
803 Missouri glades
804 Tall fescue
809 Mixed hardwood and pine

Eastern redcedar communities: Fragrant sumac is a common shrub or small tree component in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) communities throughout much of its range [7,14,29,30,39,42,57,67,70,72]. In Tennessee cedar glades, fragrant sumac thickets develop in open-canopy forests where eastern redcedar is the predominant tree species; winged elm (Ulmus alata), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), oaks (Quercus. spp.) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) often become mixed with the eastern redcedar component in later successional stages [63]. In a description of an eastern redcedar savannah in Ontario, fragrant sumac is listed as being a component of the "rich understory layer" in association with downy pagoda-plant (Blephilia ciliata), common hop tree (Ptelea trifoliata), and hairyjoint meadowparsnip (Thaspium barbinode) [38]. In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina, the eastern redcedar-dominated communities where fragrant sumac occurs may contain Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) and a variety of deciduous hardwood associates: pignut hickory (Carya glabra), northern red oak (Q. rubra), white ash (F. americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), chestnut oak (Q. prinus), mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa), and American elm (U. americana) [72]. In New York, the eastern redcedar component may also contain American elm, rock elm (U. thomasii), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), white ash, shagbark hickory (C. ovata), basswood (Tilia americana), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) [66]. Other woody associates commonly found associated with eastern redcedar in communities where fragrant sumac occurs are blackjack oak (Q.marilandica), Carolina buckthorn (Frangula caroliniana), rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum), dwarf hackberry (Celtis tenuifolia), coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus), and Alabama supplejack (Berchemia scandens). Herbaceous associates may include little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), dropseed (Sporobolus spp.), yellow fumewort (Corydalis flavula), anemone (Anemone spp.), creamflower rockcress (Arabis hirsuta var. pycnocarpa), roundleaf ragwort (Packera obovata), Wright's cliffbrake (Pellaea wrightiana), red columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), and various sedges (Carex spp.) [42,70,72].

Oak and oak-hickory communities: Fragrant sumac is a common woody shrub in a variety of oak and oak-hickory communities [53]. The species occurs in black oak (Q. velutina) forests in Illinois as an understory component with common pricklyash (Zanthoxylum americanum) and gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa) [58], and is also found in the understory of drier black oak communities in southeastern Michigan [3]. Fragrant sumac is "locally abundant" in the post oak-black hickory forest community [39] of the Missouri Ozarks, and is also common in oak-hickory (Carya spp.) communities in Illinois [50] and Tennessee [64]. In the Upper Midwest states and southeastern Ontario, fragrant sumac occurs in dry, calcareous oak savannas dominated by white oak, chinkapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii), and shagbark hickory [88]. In West Virginia, fragrant sumac occurs in the Appalachian oak and oak-hickory-pine (Pinus spp) forest associations [78]. Fragrant sumac occurs in the basic oak-hickory forest type in North Carolina with a variety of hickory species and the primary oaks being white, post, black, and chinkapin [70].

Other woody communities: Fragrant sumac is one of the most common woody plants found in the Ashe's juniper (J. ashei) communities in southwestern Missouri [28]. In the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri, fragrant sumac can be found as a shrub component in pine-oak forests composed of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), black oak, white oak (Q. alba), post oak (Q. stellata), blackjack oak, black hickory (C. texana) and mockernut hickory [10,75]. In the limestone and dolomitic glades of the Ozark region in Missouri and northwestern Arkansas, fragrant sumac is one of the most common shrub species in the sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-white oak climax communities that develop along the edges of grass/forb-dominated openings [6]. In Ohio, fragrant sumac commonly occurs in the rocky banks and sand dunes along edges of the elm (Ulmus spp.)-ash forest association [11]. In West Virginia, fragrant sumac occurs in the northern hardwoods forest association [78].

Grassland communities: In addition to the forest communities discussed above, fragrant sumac occurs in a variety of grassland communities [53]. In the tallgrass prairie region of Kansas, fragrant sumac is one of the most abundant shrub species where the predominant grasses are bluestem (Andropogon spp.), indiangrass, little bluestem, and switchgrass [12]; it can be found in shrub thickets that dominate upper draws and limestone outcrops, and it also occurs as an understory species in the forested areas dominated by bur oak, chinkapin oak, hackberry, and American elm [22]. Fragrant sumac occurs in the tallgrass savannas in Illinois [60], with little bluestem in Tennessee [5], and in the blackjack oak/little bluestem woodland association in Oklahoma [33]. In eastern Oklahoma, fragrant sumac can be dominant enough in some areas to form a fragrant sumac shrubland alliance and a fragrant sumac shrubland association [33].


SPECIES: Rhus aromatica
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Several florae provide keys for identifying fragrant sumac [4,11,25,26,34,69].

Fragrant sumac is a native woody shrub that achieves a mature height of 5 to 8.2 feet (1.5-2.5 m) [4,74]. Fragrant sumac typically has a thicket-forming growth habit as a result of prolific layering and sprouting [13,56]. Leaves are fragrant when bruised, deciduous and alternate with 3 leaflets that are variable in shape, lobing, and margin [26]. Mature leaflets are usually coarsely-toothed; terminal leaflets are 1.8 to 2.6 inches long (3-6.5 cm) [25]. Flower buds are formed terminally in the summer for flowering the following spring [11]. Individual flowers are inconspicuous and produced in showy, dense clusters or spikes, 0.7 to 2.5 inches (2-8 cm) long. The fruits are hairy drupes, 0.2 to 0.3 inches (5 - 7 mm) in diameter, each containing a single seed [26]. Fragrant sumac is rhizomatous, and forms an extensive, shallow root system [68]. Fragrant sumac can tolerate sites with high moisture fluctuations from saturation/flooding in winter and spring to extremely dry in summer [7].


Fragrant sumac reproduces from seeds and by sprouting and layering [46,52,56].

Breeding system: Fragrant sumac is polygamodioecious [26].

Pollination: Fragrant sumac is pollinated primarily by bees [68].

Seed production: Fragrant sumac produces 1-seeded drupes composed of a papery exocarp, a pulpy mesocarp, and a stony endocarp which encloses the true seed [47]. Brinkman [13] noted that the species produces "copious quantities" of seeds.

Seed dispersal: Seeds of fragrant sumac are spread primarily by birds and small mammals [13,45].

Seed banking: Fragrant sumac can form a persistent soil seed bank with some seeds remaining viable for 1-5 years after being incorporated into the soil profile. Viability is greatly reduced within 5 years due to a gradual loss of seed-coat impermeability. Seed bank may be replenished slowly due to herbivory of the fruits; animals eat the fruits and remove them from the site. [46].

Germination: Seed dormancy in fragrant sumac is caused by a hard, impermeable seed coat and a dormant embryo [30,9,45). Seeds must undergo maturation desiccation and cold stratification before they will germinate; desiccation must occur before cold stratification [47]. In laboratory tests, seeds that were not cold-stratified showed 0-15% germination, whereas stratified seeds showed germination of greater than 90% [13,31,47]. High temperatures have little to no effect in breaking seed dormancy in fragrant sumac [47,48].

Seedling establishment/growth: In grassland communities, seedlings of all shrub species compete directly with grasses for water and nutrients and many will die from this competition [89]. Seedling establishment of fragrant sumac may be prolific in the 1st year after fire or other disturbance [56]. Results of seed germination tests suggest seedling establishment following fire is probably the result of increased seedling survival due to the removal of litter and light competition, and not the result of enhanced germination from high temperatures. [48,85]. Seedlings rarely become established in dense thickets of fragrant sumac [56].

Asexual regeneration: Fragrant sumac reproduces clonally by sprouting from the roots and rhizomes [68]. Sprouting can occur from rhizomes as far as 12-16 feet (3.7-4.6 m) away from the original stem [24].  Fragrant sumac has been observed to sprout and form small thickets in the 1st few years following fire [52,56,90]. Fragrant sumac's sprouting ability also allows it to spread into newly developed soil mats in rocky areas and the openings along the edges of forested glades [38,63]. The density and frequency of new sprouts is reduced by frequent or recurring disturbance [61]. Li and others [46] consider it a "weak sprouter", especially when compared to other sumac species such as smooth sumac (R. glabra).

Layering occurs in fragrant sumac when stems grow into contact with the ground and develop adventitious roots.  New sprouts develop from the new roots bases and repeat the cycle of growth, layering and sprouting [56].

Fragrant sumac is a basophilic plant, i.e., it is associated with high basic (mafic or calcareous) substrates [72].  The species will tolerate a variety of soil types, but is especially well adapted to shallow, infertile, rocky soils, derived from a variety of substrates: dolomite, limestone, sandstone, and chert [6,10,15,30,57]. Sites are typically dry and excessively drained, and are commonly located on sandstone or shale ridges [73].

Fragrant sumac is usually discussed as a pioneering species which invades disturbed sites, fencerows, roadsides, abandoned fields and forest and grassland borders [19,63,68]. Fragrant sumac is considered to be shade intolerant or to have a low shade tolerance [51].  Although it does occur in many different forested communities, the specific sites are often along edges of openings or in stands where canopy closure has not yet occurred.  It may be considered more of a late-successional species in the shrub-dominated communities in limestone and dolomite glades [7,22,57].

Fragrant sumac is a deciduous shrub with a typical winter dormancy. Flowers appear in mid-spring (March-May) with leaf expansion occurring at the same time or shortly thereafter [34]. Fruit maturation is synchronous and occurs about 8-9 weeks after flowering, which in most areas is early to mid-June [44,46,47]. Because flower inflorescences are terminal, no further branch growth occurs along that axis. Branch growth each following year must arise from buds formed below the inflorescence.  New twigs grow at an angle with the twig of the previous year [24].


SPECIES: Rhus aromatica
Fire adaptations: Fragrant sumac sprouts after fire from roots and rhizomes [24,52,56,68,90].  Seedling establishment can occur from banked seed [46] or from seed disseminated by birds or mammals [45]. Seedling establishment of fragrant sumac may be prolific in the first 1 or 2 years after fire or other disturbance [49,56].

Fire regimes: As of this writing (2005), there are no published fire history studies on fragrant sumac-dominated communities.

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where fragrant sumac occurs. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1,000
silver maple-American elm Acer saccharinum-Ulmus americana < 35 to 200
sugar maple Acer saccharum > 1,000 [84]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [40,62]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1,000 [84]
juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana < 35
Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei < 35 [62]
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-22 [27,62]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. < 10
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to < 35
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. < 10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra < 35
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa < 10 [84]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [62,84]
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica < 10
black oak Quercus velutina < 35 [84]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [62]

Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Rhus aromatica
Stems of fragrant sumac are susceptible to top-kill or complete mortality caused by fire, and even low-severity surface fire will kill stems [35,58,61].

Perennating buds on roots and rhizomes are protected by soil and may allow fragrant sumac to resprout following fire [24,49,52,56,90].

Evans [19] reports that sumac (Rhus spp.) in general will increase in dominance with prescribed burning. Fragrant sumac will sprout from rhizomes and roots following fire, although it is considered a less prolific sprouter than other sumac species like winged sumac (R. copallinum) and smooth sumac [46,89]. Fragrant sumac has been observed to sprout in the 1st few years following fire, presumably in response to the increase in light reaching the forest floor [52]. Establishment of fragrant sumac after fire also relies on recruitment from seedlings [46].

There is not a clear understanding if seedling recruitment following fire is the result of fire directly stimulating the germination of banked seed, or if better seedling survival occurs due to removal of competition [48,85]. Li and others [48] performed tests on fragrant sumac seeds meant to simulate fire: they burned seeds and subjected seeds to dry heat and boiling water. All of these treatments were ineffective in promoting seed germination, so they concluded that in this species, seedling recruitment may not always increase following fire; seedling establishment following fire is likely the result of increased seedling survival due to the removal of litter and light competition, and not the result of enhanced germination by high temperatures.

A spring burn killed 100% of fragrant sumac saplings in an oak-hickory community in north-central Arkansas; however, seedlings were found establishing on the site in the 1st summer following the burn at an average density of 3.7 plants/10m2 (there was no determination if "seedlings" were from seed germination or sprouting) [35].

Fire also eliminated fragrant sumac from an oak-hickory community in Missouri. The study plots were burned in the spring either annually or on a 5-year cycle; study was carried out over a 14-year period. In both burn treatments, fragrant sumac was eliminated and no regrowth of fragrant sumac was observed [61].

A winter burn eliminated fragrant sumac from the seedling/sapling component of a little bluestem-indiangrass community in Southern Illinois. Prior to burning, fragrant sumac existed in the grassland at a density of 58 stems/acre. One hundred percent of the fragrant sumac stems were killed by the fire, and no resprouting was observed in the posttreatment surveys done in the summer of the same year. The lack of resprouting was likely the result of the fire burning very severely due to a heavy litter accumulation [2].

In a different burn study in a grassland ecosystem, fragrant sumac apparently increased in occurrence after fire in a tallgrass prairie community in north-eastern Kansas. The burns were conducted in April and were reported to have moved slowly, 3.3-6.6 feet/min (1-2 m/sec), and maintained  low flame heights, <1.6 feet (<0.5m). Fragrant sumac had a 0% canopy cover preburn; 0.1% the 1st year postburn, and 0.5% the 2nd year postburn [1].

Spring burning apparently promoted fragrant sumac in oak and shortleaf pine savannas in south-central Missouri. The study area was burned in April of 1999 and 2000, and vegetation surveys were performed in August, 1999 and 2000. Fragrant sumac was absent in pretreatment vegetation surveys, but it showed up in posttreatment surveys (no quantification of sumac occurrence was given) [49].

Summer or fall burning under dry conditions may result in fires hot enough to prevent resprouting of fragrant sumac, especially on south-facing slopes [2,43]. New sprouts and seedlings are susceptible to fire and will be killed by recurring burns [2,61].


SPECIES: Rhus aromatica
Flowers, fruit, foliage, and twigs of fragrant sumac are utilized by a variety of bird and animal species. Birds reported to feed on fruits of fragrant sumac include thrushes, robins, bluebirds, thrashers, catbirds, mockingbirds, crows, turkeys, flickers, and bobwhite quail [36,45]. Because fragrant sumac fruit matures in early summer, fruit is largely utilized by resident bird populations, and not so much by migratory populations [45]. White-tailed deer have been observed feeding on twigs and fruits of fragrant sumac [17,45]. The species is listed as a preferred winter browse species for white-tailed deer in the Missouri Ozarks [55], but not a preferred species in eastern Kansas [81]. Small mammals reported to feed on fruits of fragrant sumac include raccoons, squirrels, and opossums [34]. Brown thrashers have been observed nesting in fragrant sumac in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas [16].

Palatability/nutritional value: Seeds of fragrant sumac contain a high percentage of oil, and the energy content is 5,304 calories/g [36]. The fruit may be a source of easily digestible, quick energy, but the small size of the seeds limits the food value of the seeds [76].

Cover value: The thicket-forming growth habit of fragrant sumac makes it a good cover species for birds and small mammals [68,87].

Fragrant sumac is well suited for revegetation and reclamation of eroded, disturbed, or depleted sites because of its ability to tolerate poor, dry, rocky soils, and its ability to grow at a low ph (4.5) [68,82]. The species has not been tested on mine spoils throughout the entire mining region in the eastern United States, but it has been observed "volunteering" on mine soils in many locations. At 1 test site in West Virginia, 15-year-old plantings of fragrant sumac had successfully developed into open stands with a height of 3 to 4 feet (0.9-1.2 m) [82].

Fragrant sumac was first cultivated in the United States in 1759 [13]. It can be propagated vegetatively by rooting stem cuttings or by field-planting stem cuttings; the latter method is the one used in most commercial operations [68].

Propagation from seed is also an effective method for fragrant sumac. Fruits can be collected in late fall and early winter, and seeds can be cleaned or sown with pieces of the fruit wall still attached. Flotation can be used to separate out empty seeds [13]. Because seed dormancy in fragrant sumac is caused by both a hard seed coat and a dormant embryo, both scarification and stratification are required before seeds will germinate [31,47]. Scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour at 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 oC) followed by cold stratification at 33.8 to 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit (1-4 oC) for 1 to 3 months is recommended for fragrant sumac. If seeds will be sown in the fall, scarification is required, but the artificial cold stratification can be skipped as it will be achieved naturally in the soil environment [68]. Li and others [48] found that soaking the seeds in a Gibberellic acid solution at a concentration of 500 or 1000 mg/liter achieved the same results as the cold stratification treatment. Li and others [47] found that the germination of fragrant sumac seeds is rather insensitive to light and temperature, although, their study did show that the best germination occurred with a treatment that alternated a 12-hour photoperiod at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 oC) with a 12-hour dark period at 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 oC) .

Sumac species in general are valuable for erosion control because of their extensive root systems [68]. The showy fall foliage and drought hardiness of fragrant sumac make it a desirable shrub for ornamental and windbreak plantings [87].

Native peoples are reported to have made a drink from the fruits of fragrant sumac [78]. Fruits and leaves are reported to have a variety of herbal pharmacological uses: analgesic, antidiarrheal, burn dressing, cold remedy, dietary aid, diuretic, toothache remedy, reproduction aid, and gynecological aid [37].

Fragrant sumac is susceptible to vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Disease symptoms include wilting and dark brown streaks in the sapwood [59].

A sumac-feeding psyllid (Calophya triozomiwa) has been collected on fragrant sumac in many locations; however no injurious plant symptoms have been reported [86].

Rhus aromatica: References

1. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Ecological role of fire in gallery forests in eastern Kansas. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 73-80. [16271]

2. Anderson, Roger C.; Van Valkenburg, Charles. 1977. Response of a southern Illinois grassland community to burning. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 69(4): 399-414. [19481]

3. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768]

4. Barkley, Fred Alexander. 1937. A monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies in North and Central America, including the West Indies. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 24(3): 265-498. [392]

5. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 1977. An undescribed cedar glade community in middle Tennessee. Castanea. 42(2): 140-145. [35436]

6. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2000. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and midwest regions of the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 87(2): 286-294. [38098]

7. Baskin, Jerry M.; Webb, David H.; Baskin, Carol C. 1995. A floristic plant ecology study of the limestone glades of northern Alabama. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 122(3): 226-242. [46869]

8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

9. Boyd, Ivan L. 1943. Germination tests on four species of sumac. Transactions, Kansas Academy of Science. 46: 5-86. [501]

10. Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. The oak-hickory forest region. In: Braun, E. Lucy. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Philadelphia, PA: Blakiston Books: 162-191. [28381]

11. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]

12. Briggs, John M.; Knapp, Alan K.; Brock, Brent L. 2002. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: a fifteen-year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. American Midland Naturalist. 147(2): 287-294. [41386]

13. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rhus L. sumac. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 715-719. [6921]

14. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]

15. Catling, P. M.; Catling, V. R. 1993. Floristic composition, phytogeography, and relationships of prairies, savannas and sand barrens along the Trent River, eastern Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 107(1): 24-45. [23489]

16. Cavitt, John F. 1999. Effects of prairie fire and grazing on brown thrasher nest predation. In: Springer, J. T., ed. The central Nebraska loess hills prairie: Proceedings of the 16th North American prairie conference; 1998 July 26-29; Kearney, NE. No. 16. Kearney, NE: University of Nebraska: 112-119. [46817]

17. Crawford, Hewlette S.; Kucera, Clair L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1969. Ozark range and wildlife plants. Agric. Handb. 356. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 236 p. [18602]

18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]

19. Evans, James E. 1983. Literature review of management practices for smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), and other sumac species. Natural Areas Journal. 3(1): 16-26. [6248]

20. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

21. Flora of North America Association. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2: Pteridophytes and gymnosperms, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: [2004, October 27]. [36990]

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