Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page
SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana






Photos courtesy USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E. et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND.
Anderson, Michelle D. 2003. Juniperus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].


Sabina virginiana (L.) Antoine [134]


eastern redcedar
red cedar
aromatic cedar

The scientific name of eastern redcedar is Juniperus virginiana L. (Cupressaceae) [33,36,54,55,56,69,72,77,102,111,115,119,130, 131]. There two recognized varieties of this species: the typical variety (J. virginiana var. virginiana) [72,130] and southern redcedar (J. virginiana var. silicicola (Small) J. Silba) [72]. Adams [3] described southern redcedar as a variety of eastern redcedar based on similarity of morphological characteristics and volatile leaf oils. However, southern redcedar has previously been described and is still accepted by some authors as a distinct species, J. silicicola [102]. This species summary refers to both varieties of eastern redcedar; information specific to variety is noted.

Hybrid swarms of eastern redcedar and creeping juniper (J. horizontalis) occur on the coast of Maine and in the Driftless Area according to morphological, terpene, electrophoretic, and cytological data analysis [44,97,107]. Based on morphological variation, hybrid swarms of eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum) occur in the Texas panhandle and the northern Great Plains [45,61,62,66]. Also based on studies of morphological characteristics, hybrid swarms of eastern redcedar and Ashe juniper (J. ashei) reportedly occur in Oklahoma, Texas, and Missouri [60,63,66]. However, in a study of terpenoids, Adams and Turner [2] found no evidence of hybridization between eastern redcedar and Ashe juniper.


No special status



SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana
Eastern redcedar is native to the eastern United States and Canada. Its range extends from Nova Scotia west to Ontario, south through the northern Great Plains to eastern Texas, and east to northern Florida and the Atlantic coast [29,72,80,83]. J. v. var. virginiana occurs throughout eastern redcedar's range [69,72]. J. v. var. silicicola is restricted to coastal dunes and river sandbanks of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, North and South Carolina, and northern Florida [3,72].

Distribution of a) J. virginiana and b) J. v. var. silicicola. The distribution of J. v. var. virginiana is the same as a), the overall distribution of the species. Maps by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.

FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak-pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)


14 Great Plains
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K071 Shinnery
K073 Northern cordgrass prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie
K076 Blackland prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K083 Cedar glades
K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper-oak savanna
K087 Mesquite-oak savanna
K089 Black Belt
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K100 Oak-hickory forest
K101 Elm-ash forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K109 Transition between K104 and K106
K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest
K111 Oak-hickory-pine
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest

1 Jack pine
14 Northern pin oak
15 Red pine
19 Gray birch-red maple
20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine-hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
24 Hemlock-yellow birch
25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch
26 Sugar maple-basswood
27 Sugar maple
37 Northern white-cedar
39 Black ash-American elm-red maple
40 Post oak-blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
46 Eastern redcedar
50 Black locust
51 White pine-chestnut oak
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak
60 Beech-sugar maple
62 Silver maple-American elm
63 Cottonwood
64 Sassafras-persimmon
65 Pin oak-sweetgum
66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper
67 Mohrs (shin) oak
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak
72 Southern scrub oak
73 Southern redcedar
74 Cabbage palmetto
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine-oak
78 Virginia pine-oak
79 Virginia pine
80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine-hardwood
83 Longleaf pine-slash pine
84 Slash pine
85 Slash pine-hardwood
87 Sweetgum-yellow-poplar
88 Willow oak-water oak-diamondleaf (laurel) oak
89 Live oak
92 Sweetgum-willow oak
93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash
94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm
97 Atlantic white-cedar
104 Sweetbay-swamp tupelo-redbay
108 Red maple
109 Hawthorn
110 Black oak

601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
605 Sandsage prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
610 Wheatgrass
708 Bluestem-dropseed
709 Bluestem-grama
710 Bluestem prairie
717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass
719 Mesquite-liveoak-seacoast bluestem
730 Sand shinnery oak
731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)
733 Juniper-oak
801 Savanna
802 Missouri prairie
803 Missouri glades
804 Tall fescue
805 Riparian
809 Mixed hardwood and pine
810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills
812 North Florida flatwoods
813 Cutthroat seeps
815 Upland hardwood hammocks

Eastern redcedar commonly occurs in mixed stands with shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), Virginia pine (P. virginiana), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Q. alba), black oak (Q. velutina), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), hickories (Carya spp.), and black walnut (Juglans nigra) [133]. In the northeastern United States, eastern redcedar frequently occurs on rocky ridgetops with shagbark hickory (C. ovata), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), bristleleaf sedge (Carex eburnea), and Parlin's pussytoes (Antennaria parlinii) [105].

Where eastern redcedar dominates, species diversity is commonly low [24]. Pure stands of eastern redcedar occur throughout its range, primarily on dry uplands or abandoned farmlands [64,80], though hardwood species may also occur on these sites [105]. In southern Appalachian montane cedar-hardwood woodlands, eastern redcedar occurs with bluestems (Andropogon spp.), little bluestem, sedges (Carex spp.), panicgrass (Dichanthelium spp.), yellow honeysuckle (Lonicera flava), cliff stonecrop (Sedum glaucophyllum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), honey-locust (Gleditsia tricanthos), chinkapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii), chestnut oak (Q. prinus), pignut hickory (Carya glabra), and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa) [24,112]. Pure stands are also common in the northern Great Plains, though the stands may eventually be invaded by other woody species [94].

In the prairie ecosystem, common associates of eastern redcedar include little bluestem, big bluestem (A. gerardii var. gerardii), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), blue grama (B. gracilis), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepsis), gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis), sedges, flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), common juniper (J. communis), gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa), currants (Ribes spp.), and Rubus species [94,126].

Where stands of eastern redcedar are interspersed with grasslands, "cedar glades" may develop. Cedar glades are found in the Ozark region, north to Wisconsin, and east to Illinois and Kentucky. Though eastern redcedar dominates and may occur in almost pure stands in these glades [11,31,46,59,79], common associates in midwestern glade communities include little bluestem, big bluestem, broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus), hairy grama (B. hirsuta), sideoats grama, switchgrass, prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), indiangrass, dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.), blackjack oak, post oak (Q. stellata), white ash, winged elm (U. alata), fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica), Carolina buckthorn (Frangula caroliniana), rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum), Alabama supplejack (Berchemia scandens), and common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) [11,46,48,59,79]. In Kentucky cedar glades, eastern redcedar commonly occurs with big bluestem, little bluestem, purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea), indiangrass, nodding onion (Allium cernuum), Carolina larkspur (Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens), blue wild indigo (Baptisia australis), roundhead lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), flowering spurge, spotted sandmat (Chamaesyce maculata), slenderstalk beeblossom (Gaura filipes), necklace gladecress (Leavenworthia torulosa), Michaux's gladecress (L. uniflora), little hogweed (Portulaca oleracea), bearded flatsedge (Cyperus squarrosus), and widowscross (Sedum pulchellum) [10]. In Wisconsin cedar glades, common associates include little bluestem, big bluestem, flowering spurge, leadplant, hairy grama, Michaux's stitchwort (Minuartia michauxii var. michauxii), gray goldenrod, basswood (Tilia americana), gray birch (Betula populifolia), common juniper, and creeping juniper [31].

Classifications identifying eastern redcedar as a plant community dominant include those listed below:

Kansas [79]
Kentucky [10]
New York [105]
North Carolina [112]
Wisconsin [31]


SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana
The following description of eastern redcedar provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [47,115,130]).

Eastern redcedar is a relatively long-lived evergreen that may reach >450 years old [29,36,115,125]. It has 2 distinct growth forms. The most familiar form is narrowly conical with its branches growing up and out at a sharp angle to form a compact tree. The 2nd form is broadly conical with branches that spread widely. Both forms can be found throughout eastern redcedar's range [125]. Some authors describe the 2 forms in terms of age: young trees have the narrowly pyramidal or columnar shape with crowns becoming open and irregular as trees age [69]. Others suggest differences in crown form are attributed to variety, with J. v. var. virginiana displaying the columnar form and J. v. var. silicicola more broadly conical to rounded [29,36,69].The largest J. v. var. virginiana may reach 100 feet (30 m) tall, while J. v. var. silicicola reaches about 30 feet (10 m) tall [47].

Eastern redcedar has thin, fibrous bark [29,56,130] that is 0.3 to 0.64 inch (0.75-1.6 cm) thick [8,28,29]. Leaves of eastern redcedar are borne in 2 forms. On seedlings and new twigs, leaves are pointed and awl-shaped. On mature branches, closely overlapping scale-like leaves fit tightly against the twig in opposite pairs [46,125,130].

Eastern redcedar has a generally shallow, fibrous root system [8,125], though roots of mature eastern redcedar trees may penetrate 25 feet (7.6 m) and lateral roots may reach 20 feet (6 m) [26,142]. Eastern redcedar seedlings have penetrating taproots and may later develop a lateral taproot system [24,80]. The deep, early taproot is usually replaced by an extensive, shallow root system with age [133]. Even 1st year seedlings begin developing a long fibrous root system, often at the expense of top growth [80]. The root system may be deep where soil permits [69], but on shallow and rocky soils eastern redcedar roots are very fibrous and tend to spread widely [80]. The development of a lateral taproot with age may also enable eastern redcedar to persist on outcrops and shallow soils [24].

Eastern redcedar seeds are borne in small, fleshy, berrylike cones [8,29], with 1 to 4 seeds per cone [44,69,80,125]. Eastern redcedar cones or "berries" range from 0.12 to 0.33 inch (3-8 mm) long, with most 0.14 to 0.22 inch (3.5-5.5 mm) long [44,64,69,130]. Within this range, J. v. var. silicicola generally has smaller cone sizes than J. v. var. virginiana [36]. Seeds are 0.08-0.16 inch (2-4 mm) long [64,130].


Eastern redcedar reproduces solely by seed; there is no natural asexual regeneration. Eastern redcedar trees reach sexual maturity at approximately 10 years [29,80]. Reproductive activity may be influenced by tree size and site characteristics. A study in the Tennessee Valley found that in a managed parkland, 86% of eastern redcedar >4 inches (10 cm) dbh were reproductively active and the sex ratio was 1:1. In mature xeric forests on the rocky mountainsides only 41% of eastern redcedar >4 inches dbh were reproductively active, and the male:female sex ratio was 2.2:1. The likelihood of reproductive activity 1) was lower on the mountainside than in the parkland, 2) increased with tree diameter and height, 3) increased with diameter growth rate, and 4) decreased with shading by neighboring trees [81].

Breeding system: Eastern redcedar is dioecious [29,46,56,64,80,111,125,128]. Though rare, monoecious eastern redcedars have been found [56,111,125]. Male trees tend to be taller and have greater diameter growth than female trees, which may contribute to their success as pollen donors [129].

Pollination: Eastern redcedar pollen is wind-dispersed [29].

Seed production: Mature eastern redcedar trees produce some seeds nearly every year, but good crops occur only every 2 or 3 years [46,80,128]. Eastern redcedar produces most seed between the ages of 25 and 75, though seed production can occur in trees as young as 10 years and as old as 100+ years [46].

Seed dispersal: Eastern redcedar seed is dispersed by birds and small mammals [8,13,17,46,80,94,120]. As a result, seedling density is generally greater near trees or along fencelines that provide perching sites [29]. Seeds pass through bird digestive tracts within 30 minutes of ingestion, suggesting many seeds will be deposited near their source trees rather than transported long distances. Seeds mature and are available to birds in winter and early spring when other food is scarce and populations of wintering birds are high [94].

Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.

Germination: Seeds that pass through animal digestive tracts and those that remain on the ground beneath the trees may germinate the 1st or 2nd spring after dispersal. Most germination of eastern redcedar seed occurs in early spring of the 2nd year after dispersal [46,80,130]. Delayed germination is caused by embryo dormancy and possibly by an impermeable seedcoat. Passage through an animal's digestive tract speeds seed germination [46].

Seedling establishment/growth: Most natural regeneration of eastern redcedar takes place on relatively poor hardwood or pine (Pinus spp.) sites, along fence rows, or in pastures that are not burned or mowed. Seedlings are commonly established in rather open hardwood stands, adjacent to older seed-bearing eastern redcedar trees [80]. Eastern redcedar seedlings are shade intolerant, so survival is better under open stand conditions [46]. If competition from an overstory is severe, eastern redcedar seedlings may not survive. Once established, however, eastern redcedar survives for extended periods under severe competition [80]. Eastern redcedar seedling establishment may be improved following the removal of litter [46]. On very dry sites, most seedlings are found in crevices, between layers of limestone, and in other protected places where the microclimate is most favorable [46,80]. Seedling development is relatively slow on these adverse sites, although eastern redcedar seedlings withstand drought well [80]. Established seedlings are drought tolerant due to their taproot and relatively small leaf surface [46,133]. During the 1st year, seedlings do not produce much height growth but develop a long fibrous root system [46,80].

Eastern redcedar growth is relatively slow [46,64], though stem volume, sapwood, and heartwood growth rates of eastern redcedar increase when trees reach 15 to 20 years [4]. Trees 20 to 30 years old are generally 18 to 26 feet (5.5-8 m) tall and 2 to 3 inches (5-7.5 cm) in diameter [46,64,80]. Mature trees typically reach 40-70 feet (12-21 m) tall, with a short bole 12 to 28 inches (30-71 cm) in diameter [46,56,64,80,80,87]. Growth rates of eastern redcedar depend largely on stand density, competition from other species, and site quality. These factors probably reflect competition for available soil moisture on most sites [80]. On "good" sites [46], trees may reach 120 feet (36 m) tall and 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter [46,80,83]. On dry sites in the prairie region, trees 110 years old are often less than 20 feet (6 m) tall [46,83]. On thin soils where growth is particularly slow, eastern redcedar may have diameters <2 inches (5 cm) after 50 years [31]. An example of aboveground biomass and productivity from 3 Kansas eastern redcedar stands is presented below [91]:

Total aboveground biomass
Biomass C
Biomass N
Litter fall production
Annual aboveground net primary productivity
35 1,733 114,120 61,563 487 5,190 9,796
40 1,900 120,739 65,451 517 5,210 10,442
80 860 210,952 106,192 849 4,610 7,247

Increased stand density generally results in taller eastern redcedar trees [46].

Asexual regeneration: There is no natural asexual reproduction in eastern redcedar. It does not sprout after complete cutting or burning [29,80,133].

Elevation and aspect: Eastern redcedar occurs from sea level to 5,000 feet (1,524 m) in elevation [29,112]. Although the most desirable elevation is not clearly delineated, eastern redcedar is found most often growing between 100 and 3,500 feet (30-1,070 m). It is notably absent below the 100 foot elevation zone in the southern and eastern parts of its range [80].

Aspect influences the character of eastern redcedar stands. On north and east slopes, there may be fewer eastern redcedar trees because of hardwood competition. However, the eastern redcedar that does occur on north and east slopes may be taller than the trees found on south and west slopes [46]. Eastern redcedar is generally more prevalent on south and south-west facing slopes [112]. In the western part of its range, however, eastern redcedar may more likely be found on north-facing slopes and along streambanks where there is some protection from high temperatures and drought [80]. On exposed areas in the far northern portion of its range, eastern redcedar's growth habit may be reduced to a low shrub [69].

Climate: Widespread distribution of eastern redcedar attests to its ability to grow under a range of climatic conditions. Precipitation averages 15 inches (380 mm) in the northwestern part of its range and 60 inches (1,520 mm) in the southeastern parts of its range [29,80,83,111]. Average annual maximum temperature ranges from 90 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit (32-46 oC) and average minimum temperature ranges from -45 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-43 to -7 oC). The growing season varies from about 120 to 250 days [80,83].

Soils and topography: Throughout its range, eastern redcedar grows under diverse site conditions: in deep and shallow soils, on ridgetops, and in valleys [46,48,65,80,115]. Eastern redcedar grows in such varied habitats as thin, rocky soils and dry outcrops to finer textured, saturated soils of swamps [18,64,65,80,83,111,133], though it is not tolerant of flooding [64]. Eastern redcedar is common on shallow soils (6 to 8 inches (15-20 cm) thick) on limestone or sandstone bedrock [29,31,48,69]. Where soil averages less than 12 inches (30 cm) deep, eastern redcedar seldom grows taller than 20 to 30 feet (6-9 m). Where soil depth is 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cm), it reaches 35 feet (10.7 m) in approximately 50 years [8]. Optimal site conditions for eastern redcedar are deep (>24 inches), moist, well-drained alluvial soils, where it may reach heights of 55 to 60 feet (16.7-18.3 m) after 50 years [46,80,83].

Eastern redcedar grows on alkaline or acidic soils where soil pH ranges from 4.7 to 7.8 [8,46,80,111]. High soil acidity does not deter eastern redcedar establishment [46,125], though it may slow growth [85]. Combinations of low phosphorus, high calcium and pH>7 in particular may favor eastern redcedar [24]. However, Lawson [80] reports that although eastern redcedar will grow on slightly alkaline soils, it is not particularly tolerant of higher pH levels. Eastern redcedar's occurrence on neutral to alkaline soils may be a result (rather than a cause) of the tree's presence [46]. Soils in eastern redcedar stands tend to become neutral or slightly alkaline because the high calcium content of the tree's foliage can change the pH of the surface soil in a relatively short time [29,46,80].

Eastern redcedar (primarily J. v. var. virginiana) is commonly found on rough upland topography, including moderate to steep slopes and eroded limestone slopes and knobs [3,8,11,13,24,112,112,125]. It frequently forms dense stands on exposed bluffs and ridges [18]. Southern redcedar occurs predominantly on coastal dunes, swales, shell mounds, brackish flats, and floodplains [3,36].

Tolerances: Southern redcedar is saline tolerant, growing on brackish marsh sites in southeastern U.S. [50], barrier island swales subject to saltwater flooding [123,137], and on coastal dunes subject to salt spray [65,70].

Eastern redcedar grows where water is near the surface or where soil moisture fluctuates from near saturation in winter to extreme dryness in summer [29]. It has high drought tolerance [29,64,93,133], enhanced by the presence of rapidly produced taproots as well as an extensive fibrous root system [29]. The relative drought tolerance of eastern redcedar compared with some herbaceous species (e.g. big bluestem) may contribute to its successful invasion of tallgrass prairie in the absence of fire [9].

Eastern redcedar is frost hardy [64,80,133], though newly established seedlings are subject to frost heaving and foliage may occasionally be damaged by winter injury [80].

Eastern redcedar is moderately shade intolerant/sun-adapted [18,80,93], though seedlings may survive for several years under a sparse canopy [13,80,120,133].

Eastern redcedar is both a pioneer and an invader [13,30,135]. It colonizes relatively open patches of eroded bare ground and is most competitive on exposed dry sites; disturbed areas including abandoned pastures and cultivated fields, eroded areas, and open woods thinned by timber harvest [29,36,46,69,92,104,128,135,141]. Eastern redcedar does not establish well in more competitive, denser vegetation cover that occurs with less erosion or later in succession [141]. However, in Texas savannas, eastern redcedar establishment may by facilitated by post oak trees, which are then overtopped and outcompeted by eastern redcedar [27].

Eastern redcedar a well-known invader in the prairie region [13,18,30,94]. Invasion into prairie grasslands is attributed primarily to absence of fire [9,22,94,118], and may be exacerbated by certain grazing practices [22,128]. A readily available seed source resulting from eastern redcedar plantings and ability to capitalize across a wide range of environmental conditions have also encouraged eastern redcedar establishment in grasslands [94]. Eastern redcedar is thus an early to mid-seral component in cedar glades that result from the invasion of grasslands [11,18,59]. These glades eventually succeed to oak (Quercus spp.) -hardwood forests [11]. Eastern redcedar glades may persist as subclimax vegetation where soil development is low and rock outcrops are abundant. The scarcity of soil precludes establishment of other species [100].

Eastern redcedar forms persistent, stable communities in limestone outcrop areas of the Interior Low Plateaus and the Limestone Valleys and Uplands Soils Province. These communities have been regarded as climax, subclimax, and edaphic climax. In particular, eastern redcedar stands may persist as subclimax forest on eroded limestone slopes and knobs [11]. Persistent stands occurring on outcrops are subject to windthrow due to exposure and shallow soil. The result is a periodic opening of the stand favoring continued eastern redcedar establishment [24].

On the Atlantic coast, eastern redcedar may promote recruitment of mid-successional woody seedlings (and impact their distribution) passively through distribution of seeds by perching birds. Recruitment may be actively promoted through increased seedling survival due to eastern redcedar alterations in microclimate and edaphic factors. In a Virginia study, fleshy-fruited seeds of woody species were more abundant in the seed bank beneath eastern redcedar than in exposed sites. Photosynthetically active radiation was reduced under eastern redcedar canopies, and soil temperature fluctuations were moderated during the growing season. Moisture content, organic matter, and chlorides were higher for soils under eastern redcedar than in exposed sites [71].

Eastern redcedar has small, inconspicuous flowers that appear from early to late spring [46,133]. Pollination occurs from February (south and east) to May (north and west), and fertilization occurs about a month later. Cones develop on male and female trees in the fall [80], and seeds mature in 1 season, from late July to mid-November depending on location [44,69,80,115,128,133]. As the ovulate cone develops, greenish scales form the outer fleshy protective coat of the berrylike cone. Cones change color from green to greenish-white to whitish-blue and finally to bluish as the season progresses. The cones do not open and will remain on the tree until early spring [80].


SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana
Fire adaptations: Eastern redcedar does not survive on sites subject to frequent fire [132].

Fire regimes: Eastern redcedar frequently occurs on sites topographically and edaphically protected from fire, including bluffs, rocky hillsides, shale barrens of Virginia and West Virginia, limestone glades of Tennessee, Virginia, Missouri and Arkansas; serpentine barrens of Pennsylvania and Maryland; sandstone cliffs; granite outcrops; sand dunes; and estuarine swamps [29]. Sites where eastern redcedar occurs as a persistent dominant are unlikely to support frequent fire due to rocky, shallow soils and low fuel loads [24]. On shallow soils where litter accumulation is limited, the lack of fuel protects many eastern redcedar stands even where fire occurrence is high [46]. However, in the absence of fire on adjoining uplands, eastern redcedar has been able to spread from these clifftop areas and invade uplands where it occupies a successional role [24]. On deep soils, competing vegetation produces enough litter to support fire. Sufficient fuels to carry fire are usually available on grasslands and old agricultural fields, and a single fire may remove eastern redcedar from a site [46].

Fire suppression has resulted in the invasion of eastern redcedar into grasslands and savannas [59,132]. In areas that once burned periodically, eastern redcedar was protected from fire on dry or rocky sites lacking sufficient herbaceous fuel to carry fire. As fire frequency decreased, eastern redcedar invaded adjacent and apparently stable plant communities. Subsequently, individual eastern redcedars have increased in size and coverage, and stand density has increased. Large trees and dense stands shade or otherwise inhibit growth of desired herbaceous vegetation [29]. In as little as 30 years after a fire, a treeless pasture can be converted to a closed canopy eastern redcedar forest [68,132].

A study of a cedar glade in southern Missouri found that fires occurred every 3.2 years during the presettlement period (1630-1870). After 1870, fire frequency decreased to 22 years [59]. In a post oak savanna in southern Missouri, a study of fire scars on post oak, shortleaf pine, and eastern redcedar indicated a mean fire free interval of 4.3 years between 1700 and 1810. The period between 1785 and 1810 showed the most extensive evidence of fire, and fire frequency declined after 1860 (coincident with European settlement) [58].

Fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where eastern redcedar is a common associate are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1000
sugar maple Acer saccharum > 1000
sugar maple-basswood Acer saccharum-Tilia americana > 1000 [132]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [75,98]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10 [98]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35 [98,139]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii < 35 [98,108,139]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to > 200
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1000 [132]
juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana < 35
Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei < 35
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-22 [59,98]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera < 35 [132]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii < 5-47+ [98,101,139]
jack pine Pinus banksiana <35 to 200 [34]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. < 10
slash pine Pinus elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood Pinus elliottii-variable < 35 [132]
longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [90,132]
longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [132]
red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 10-200 (10**) [34,49]
red-white-jack pine* Pinus resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [34,67]
pocosin Pinus serotina 3-8
eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200
eastern white pine-eastern hemlock Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200
eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple Pinus strobus-Quercus rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200
loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to < 35
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to < 35
sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-Ulmus americana < 35 to 200 [132]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides < 35 to 200 [98]
aspen-birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [34,132]
black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-Acer saccharum > 1000
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. < 10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra < 35
northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis < 35
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia < 35 >
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa < 10 [132]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [98,132]
shinnery Quercus mohriana < 35 [98]
chestnut oak Q. prinus 3-8
northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to < 35
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica < 10
black oak Quercus velutina < 35
live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to< 100 [132]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [98]
eastern hemlock-yellow birch Tsuga canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis > 200 [132]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. < 35 to 200 [34,132]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary

Tree without adventitious bud/root crown
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana

Eastern redcedar is susceptible to fire kill because of its thin bark, shallow roots, inability to sprout, and highly combustible evergreen foliage. The foliage may extend to the ground, particularly in young and/or open-grown trees, creating ladder fuels that may carry fire to tree crowns [8,21,23,31,58,64,78,80,140].

Eastern redcedar seedlings and saplings (<about 20 years old [4]) are very susceptible to fire; they may be eliminated from a site following winter or spring prescribed burning [4,5,6]. Eastern redcedar mortality decreases as tree size increases, due to relatively thicker bark and greater vertical distance of the upper foliage from lethal temperatures [25,37,58,94,95,96]. In a Nebraska prescribed fire study, eastern redcedar height-class mortality means were [95]:

Height-class Mortality
<3.3 feet (1 m) 88%
3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) 60%
6.6 to 9.9 feet (2-3 m) 35%
>9.9 feet (3 m) 10%

In Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana, low-severity spring prescribed burns, exhibiting irregular burn patterns, were only effective in killing small diameter eastern redcedar (1.5 inches (4 cm) basal diameter), while larger trees were unaffected [1]. A study of prescribed fire in a Missouri eastern redcedar glade found that spring burning killed all trees up to 1.5 feet (0.5 m) tall but only 7% of the trees taller than 6.5 feet (2 m) [86].

Eastern redcedar establishes from seed after fire. Postfire seedling establishment may be abundant [140].

In the absence of fire, eastern redcedar thrives and may eventually dominate prairie or forest vegetation [1,5,13,17]. Prescribed fire is generally effective at controlling eastern redcedar invasion in grasslands [13,78]. Spring burning is appropriate for eastern redcedar treatment because leaf water content is relatively low in late spring [38]. Spring burns usually kill eastern redcedar up to 3.3 feet (1 m) tall [25,29,74,86], though larger trees up to 20 feet (6 m) are occasionally killed [96]. In an Illinois barren community, eastern redcedar seedlings and saplings were eliminated for at least 20 years following a spring prescribed fire [5]. In a Tennessee study over 20 years, eastern redcedar establishment was prevented using late winter prescribed surface fires annually and at 5-year intervals. On sites without fire treatment, eastern redcedar was recruited [32]. On a Texas site, prescribed burning reduced eastern redcedar from an average prefire density of 19 stems/acre (0-49 stems/ha) to 0 stems/acre (measured 4 months after the burn), with the unburned control averaging 21 stems/acre (54 stems/ha) [124].

Though widely used, broadcast burning disadvantages include incomplete control, a narrow annual treatment window, and integrated prefire (to accumulate fine fuel) and postfire (to allow recovery of grasses) grazing management required to improve results [94]. Degree of control depends on tree height, amount and distribution of herbaceous material that serves as fuel, backfire or headfire, and weather conditions favoring ignition of tree crowns [78].

Eastern redcedar trees <6 feet (1.8 m) tall are easily killed by prescribed burns with adequate grass fuel (~2,000 lbs/acre (2,268 kg/ha)) [17,39,78]. A Missouri study found that eastern redcedar mortality depended chiefly on the ratio of the amount of surface fuel to the amount of eastern redcedar foliage to be consumed (higher ratio = greater mortality). The ratio was affected both by size of the tree and density of the crown. Mortalities for eastern redcedar with very low, low, moderate, and high density crowns were 90%, 82%, 66%, and 35% respectively [86]. Eastern redcedar is somewhat less susceptible to fire as tree size increases, so fire intensity must increase to scorch the crown of taller trees [37,86,95]. Larger trees may escape fire due to thicker bark, higher canopies [94], and a low fuel to foliage ratio [86]. Headfires running with a 5- to 20-mph wind may be necessary to create flames that engulf the lower parts of large trees [78]. Controlling trees >6 feet tall often requires more fuel than the range's potential production [17].

Fire intensity and tree mortality are reduced further in dense stands of large trees because junipers reduce production of fine fuels [37]. The susceptibility of small eastern redcedar trees is enhanced because canopies of smaller trees do not have a large effect on surrounding herbaceous vegetation and stems are in close proximity to fine fuel [94]. In a Missouri burn, large tree mortality depended on amount of herbaceous fuel and density of crowns. Trees having crowns with sparse foliage exhibited 90% mortality. Trees having larger crowns with dense foliage showed 35% mortality. Light crowned trees had more foliage beneath them than did densely crowned trees. Temperatures the day of the burn ranged from 28 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit (-2 to 15 oC), the lowest relative humidity was 26%, and winds averaged 4.7 mph [29,86].

Two prescribed fires conducted 1 week apart on tallgrass prairie in Missouri had varying results. The 1st fire occurred with higher humidity and wetter fuels, resulting in a less severe burn that allowed even eastern redcedar stems 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) in diameter to survive. Drier fuel conditions and lower humidity during the 2nd burn resulted in relatively greater fire severity that killed 93 to 100% of eastern redcedar up to 3.5 inches in diameter [74].

Because eastern redcedar growth rate and resistance to prescribed fire treatments increases at 15 to 20 years, control of invading trees is most effective at less than 10 years of age and 6.6 feet (2 m) tall [4]. Eastern redcedar stands are often a mixture of tree sizes, and fuel loadings vary, so it is difficult to predict the extent of mortality following prescribed fire. In an Oklahoma study, eastern redcedar mortality for small (2 to 5 feet (0.6-1.5 m)), medium (5 to 8 feet (1.5-2.4 m)), and large (8 to 16 feet (2.4-4.9 m)) trees was 82, 54, and 39%, respectively. Fuel loads ranged from 1,300 to 6,100 lbs/acre (1,474-6,917 kg/ha), and tree mortality increased with increasing fuel load [39]. Studies at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve found spring prescribed burning was ineffective at controlling eastern redcedar greater than 1.6 inches (4 cm) in diameter; however, tree girdling in the fall followed by prescribed burning in the spring resulted in >50% immediate reduction of eastern redcedar with most of the remaining trees dying during the 1st growing season after treatment. Subsequent burning virtually removed eastern redcedar from the site [1]. Use of defoliating herbicides prior to prescribed burning increases the leaf litter and may improve the effectiveness of fire treatments by increasing fire intensity [41,42]. Desiccation of eastern redcedar foliage increases crown scorch and mortality due to prescribed fire by promoting crown fire [37]. Individual tree ignition following prescribed burning may be effective for removing any surviving eastern redcedar [40,94]. Picloram and/or cutting treatments may also be effective in removing larger eastern redcedar not killed by prescribed burning [94,95,118].


SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana
Anderson, Michelle, compiler. 2003. Prescribed fire to control eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. In: Juniperus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [94].


The study site is located on the Rowse Ranch in northeastern Custer County, Nebraska. It is approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) west and 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Burwell, Nebraska.

Site vegetation was mixed-grass prairie. Dominant herbaceous species were little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), blue grama (B. gracilis), and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii). Other herbaceous species included big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), sand bluestem (A.g. var. paucipilus), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Shrubs present included leadplant (Amorpha canescens), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos alba), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), currants (Ribes spp.), and Rubus species. Occasional deciduous trees were found in study plots, including eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima), and Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) stands were generally open with varying densities of smaller, younger age classes. Stands near the foot of slopes were almost "closed," while density diminished with elevation. Trees were largely absent from ridge tops.

Active growth; flowering

The study site comprised 2 parallel ridges defined by steep-sided canyons. The ridge lines are oriented on a north-south axis, and plots generally extended from canyon bottoms to tops encompassing east and west aspects. Soils are deep, moderately permeable, and moderately alkaline. The climate of Custer County features cold winters and hot summers. Rainfall is heaviest in late spring and early summer; 80% of annual precipitation occurs from April through September. Average annual rainfall is 22.5 inches (572 mm), and average annual snowfall is 29 inches (737mm). Average winter temperature is 36.6 degrees Fahrenheit (-3 oC), and average summer temperature is 71.6 degrees Fahrenheit (22 oC).

Weather conditions in 1993 were more favorable for eastern redcedar control than in 1994. Conditions in 1993 were within recommended burning prescriptions with the exception of windspeed, which was above prescription. Relative humidity was above prescription in 1994. Fine fuels were also significantly greater (p=0.0003) in 1993 than in 1994.

  Weather conditions for broadcast burns Fine fuel loads by plot
Date Temp.
Rel. humidity
Wind speed
Wind direction 1 2 3 4
5/4/1993 24 34 32 SSE 3,041 3,617 2,072 1,958
4/22/1994 15 73 16-24 ESE 1,865 1,694 1,628 1,076

Broadcast burning was followed by a variety of treatments to remove individual eastern redcedars that survived the fire. These treatments included burned/herbicide (picloram soil application), burned/mechanical removal, burned/individual ignition, and burned/control (no follow-up). Unburned controls were also subject to the follow-up treatments: unburned/herbicide, unburned/mechanical, and unburned/control.

Broadcast burn effects: Mean eastern redcedar mortality (%) by year and by height class, 3 weeks postfire, tended to be greater on west-facing than east-facing slopes:
Aspect Year Height class (m)
1993 1994 <1 1-2 2-3 >3
East 72 55 82 51 21 4
West 82 77 94 69 48 14

Mean eastern redcedar mortality increased from 77 to 92% 1 year after the 1993 burn and increased from 66 to 69% 1 year after the 1994 burn (based on burned/control treatments - see above). Delayed mortality may be the result of damage to the bark and cambium of eastern redcedar that is not immediately fatal. Foliage remaining on burned trees may be insufficient to support the root system, also contributing to delayed mortality.

Follow-up treatment effects: Mechanical treatments on both burned and unburned plots provided consistently high levels of control across all 4 height classes. Effectiveness of other follow-up treatments decreased with increasing height. Mean eastern redcedar mortality (%) 1 year after the burns and follow-up treatments is presented below:

Treatment Year Height class (m)
  1993 1994 <1 1-2 2-3 >3
burned/control 92 69 94 71 63 29
burned/herbicide 94 95 98 95 93 60
burned/mechanical 98 94 95 99 100 94
burned/individual ignition 93 85 96 91 78 31
unburned/herbicide 72 85 82 83 60 66
unburned/mechanical 89 88 84 97 97 95

This study was conducted to evaluate efficacy and cost efficiency of broadcast prescribed fire alone and in conjunction with supplemental control measures for trees escaping prescribed fire. The burned/control treatment was the least expensive. Costs for burned/herbicide and burned/mechanical were not significantly different (p<0.1). Broadcast burning combined with other treatments was more effective and cost efficient than unburned treatments.

A fire-return interval for effective eastern redcedar control was estimated. Because broadcast burning can be expected to kill nearly 90% of trees <1 m tall and mortality diminishes with increasing height, the fire-return interval should be short enough to capture trees recruited since the last fire. Excessively short intervals, however, increase cost and management complications. This study suggests that 8 years may be the optimum fire return interval for eastern redcedar control in the Nebraska Loess Hills when follow-up treatments are used on trees >3 m tall that survive fire.


SPECIES: Juniperus virginiana
Many birds and small mammals eat the berrylike cones of eastern redcedar, especially in winter [8,12,17,111]. Wildlife species that eat eastern redcedar the berrylike cones include waxwings, bobwhite quail, ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkeys, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and coyotes [46,64,80,99]. Deer may browse the abundant foliage of eastern redcedar when no other food is available [46,64,80,106], and are more likely to browse reproductively-active, mature than juvenile eastern redcedars [122].

Palatability/nutritional value: Eastern redcedar cones are high in crude fat and crude fiber, moderate in calcium, and high in total carbohydrates. Though considered poor quality forage [80], the foliage has relatively high calcium content, ranging from 1.9 to 2.6% on sites in the Ozarks [8].

Chemical analysis of eastern redcedar browse in the Missouri Ozarks (% dry matter) [89]:

Protein Fat Fiber C P K
7.08 11.02 24.42 1.17 0.12 0.49

Cover value: As an evergreen, eastern redcedar provides good nesting and roosting cover for many birds [17,64,80]. These include nest sites for Cooper's hawks [136] and roosting sites for eastern screech-owls [15,35], short-eared owls [19], and saw-whet owls [121]. Dense thickets of eastern redcedar provide good escape and hiding cover for deer and small mammals [17,64,80].

Eastern redcedar establishes well on abandoned surface mines, agricultural fields, and logging sites [18,85] and is used to recover highly eroded, nutrient-poor soils [125]. Use of eastern redcedar for rehabilitating strip-mines is most effective in calcareous spoils due to its slow growth on acid banks [85]. Many cultivars of eastern redcedar are available, with variations primarily based on overall tree shape and the color of female cones [125]. Greater planting success is likely with seed sources of geographic proximity [109]. Planting recommendations include storing seed in cones for 1 year, then cleaning, scarifying and sowing in the fall. Alternatively, seed can be stored in the cones for 1 year then cleaned and stratified in peat for 100 days at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 oC) and sown in the spring or stratified outdoors in the shade from May until sown in the fall [64].

Seeds of junipers (Juniperus spp.) have both seed coat and embryo dormancy [82]. Maximum germination of eastern redcedar in minimum time may be achieved by treatment to increase seedcoat permeability and stratification [46]. Eastern redcedar germination is improved by a combination of warm and cold stratification. Either 45 days of warm stratification followed by 60 days of cold stratification, or 60 days warm followed by 45 days of cold stratification yield best results. In lab tests, germination without stratification did not occur at temperatures above 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 oC) [14]. For storage, cleaned eastern redcedar seeds should be dried to 7% moisture content and stored at 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-7 oC) [46].

Commercial nurseries use propagation by rooted cuttings and grafting for vegetative reproduction of eastern redcedar [80,128].

The aromatic oils found in eastern redcedar heartwood repel clothing moths and are widely used in perfumes [4,14,64,80,80]. Aromatic oils are toxic to some ant species (Argentine ant and odorous house ant), and eastern redcedar mulch is effective in discouraging ant colonization [88]. Eastern redcedar oils are also effective in repelling Formosan subterranean termites [143]. Heartwood extractives may inhibit growth of fungi and bacteria [84]. Eastern redcedar heartwood has approximately 10 times the oil extractives of sapwood [138]. Due to a higher proportion of heartwood to sapwood in closed-canopy stands of eastern redcedar, trees grown under closed stand conditions may contain 4 to 5 times as much oil in the bolewood as open-grown trees of the same diameter [138].

Eastern redcedar is commonly planted in shelterbelts, windbreaks, and snow fences [17,46,53,64,80,82,118]. It also used for Christmas trees [17,46,80] and ornamental plantings [53,64].

Wood Products: Eastern redcedar heartwood is resistant to attack by termites and has greater commercial value than sapwood [4]. The principal product of eastern redcedar is fenceposts [8,111,118], though it is also used for lumber [17], poles, boats, paneling, closets, chests, and pencils [64,118]. The aromatic heartwood is commonly used for chests or closet lining [69,111]. On most sites, eastern redcedar grows slowly, and long rotations are required to produce conventional sawlogs. However, because the wood is used for small items and there is wide latitude in acceptable defects, shortening of rotations and intermediate harvesting of merchantable wood are possible. About 20 to 30 years are required for posts and 40 to 60 years for sawtimber [80].

Thinning eastern redcedar windbreaks results in increased diameter and height growth of remaining trees, proportional to the amount of release [20]. Thinning is also useful in maintaining eastern redcedar glades where the hardwood understory is not well established. Harvest opens the stand and exposes seedlings to higher light intensity and potentially eliminates the shade-tolerant successional species. However, where successional species are well established, thinning may hasten succession [100].

Eastern redcedar severely limits forage beneath its canopy but has little effect on forage production outside the canopy [17,38]. At high tree densities, canopy closure is rapid and results in low plant diversity [17,52,73]. The Flint Hills area in eastern Kansas consists of tallgrass prairie invaded by eastern redcedar. One study found a significant negative relationship between species richness and tree density (p<0.0001), as well as significantly fewer herbaceous species (p<0.0001) under the eastern redcedar canopy than outside the canopy. Eastern redcedar forests had a 99% decrease in herbaceous production compared to the tallgrass prairie [22]. In Nebraska, many plant community dominants of the bluestem prairie are reduced under eastern redcedar cover [52]. At 2 tallgrass prairie sites in Nebraska, studies estimated that herbaceous biomass production under eastern redcedar canopies averaged 83% less than in the interstitial spaces, possibly due to an 85% reduction in light and 11.5% reduction in soil moisture [114]. In tallgrass prairies, it is realistic to expect yields of 4,000 pounds forage per acre per year. With 200 eastern redcedar seedlings per acre (500 seedlings/ha), yield will decrease to 2,200 pounds per acre per year. Five hundred seedlings per acre (1,250 seedlings/ha) reduce annual forage production to 600 pounds per acre [118]. Analysis of aerial photos from the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas indicated that eastern redcedar can expand and convert tallgrass prairie to a closed-canopy forest in as little as 40 years [22]. Loss of forage may contribute to soil erosion and decreased water infiltration [17].

Eastern redcedar may produce allelochemicals that affect establishment of at least some prairie species. In a Nebraska study, establishment of finger coreopsis (Coreopsis palmata) from seed collected beneath eastern redcedar trees was significantly lower (95% confidence interval) than establishment from seed collected adjacent to the trees (84% germination v. 0%) [117].

Mechanical treatments that sever or dig up eastern redcedar provide effective control due to eastern redcedar's inability to sprout [17,94].

Eastern redcedar is resistant to most foliar herbicides, though soil-applied herbicides may provide effective control on small acreages [17,113]. Eastern redcedar is relatively insensitive to foliar application of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D [25,46]. Indiscriminate spraying of these herbicides to reduce woody species and convert areas to grassland may eliminate hardwood associates from stands while releasing eastern redcedar and promoting eastern redcedar's dominance [46]. In studies at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana, eastern redcedar survived girdling combined with glyphosate application [1]. Foliar-stem treatments with picloram alone or in combination with 2,4,5-T or 2,4-D were effective in controlling eastern redcedar [25,96]. Soil applied herbicides, particularly picloram, may be more effective for eastern redcedar control [96]. In 1 study, soil spot applications of undiluted picloram achieved 48 to 100% mortality of eastern redcedar by 18 months posttreatment. However, the use of liquid picloram may be ineffective where trees are taller than 15 feet (5 m) or where excessive litter could prevent root zone penetration of the chemical [57]. A Nebraska study demonstrated variable control of eastern redcedar using soil applications of hexazinone (68-90% mortality), picloram (70-94% mortality), and tebuthiuron (71-90% mortality), based on application rate and tree height [113]. Soil-applied herbicides may be more effective when used as follow-up treatments to broadcast burning [94].

Eastern redcedar is particularly suited to conditions coincident with heavy grazing [126]. Grazing of the tallgrass prairie into late summer or early fall leaves little standing vegetation to support fires with sufficient intensity to kill eastern redcedar the following spring. This management practice promotes the continued establishment and growth of eastern redcedar in the grasslands, even in areas that are frequently burned [22,23]. However, eastern redcedar roots are damaged by the hooves of grazing animals and browsing may severely limit seedling and sapling height growth [46,133]. Some authors note that increased stocking rates of cattle may decrease eastern redcedar invasion. Mice, rabbits, and deer may also damage seedlings [29,80].

Several insects damage eastern redcedar but rarely cause serious permanent damage. Roots of seedlings are very susceptible to attack by nematodes and grubs. Bagworms and spruce spider mites can completely defoliate eastern redcedar, and it is susceptible to some bark beetles and several boring insects and root weevils. Eastern redcedar, especially when weakened by stress or insects, is very susceptible to damage by root rot fungi as well as cedar rust fungi that attack the stem and foliage [80]. The most commonly known and widely spread species for which eastern redcedar is an alternate host is cedar-apple rust, which produces conspicuous gall-like growths on the plant and is a serious pathogen of cultivated apples [66,80,111,118,125,128]. Specific insect pests and diseases are identified by Lawson [80].


1. Abrell, Brian. 1990. Control of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by girdling and burning at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana. Natural Areas Journal. 10(3): 140. [16959]
2. Adams, R. P.; Turner, B. L. 1970. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus ashei Buch. Taxon. 19: 728-751. [21858]
3. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. [19792]
4. Alemayehu, Dejene; Engle, David M.; Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steve. 1998. Pattern of growth of sapwood, heartwood, and stem volume of open-grown eastern redcedar in grasslands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(3): 169-174. [43384]
5. Anderson, Roger C.; Schwegman, John E. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 100-107. [16256]
6. Anderson, Roger C.; Van Valkenburg, Charles. 1977. Response of a southern Illinois grassland community to burning. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 69(4): 399-414. [19481]
7. Anonis, Danute Pajaujis. 2001. Woody notes in perfumery: cedarwood and cedarwood derivatives. Part 1. Perfumer Flavorist. 26: 38-43. [43452]
8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
9. Axmann, Beverly D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1993. Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie watershed. The Southwestern Naturalist. 38(4): 325-330. [38012]
10. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 1978. Plant ecology of cedar glades in the Big Barren region of Kentucky. Rhodora. 80: 545-557. [45322]
11. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2000. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and Midwest regions of the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 87(2): 286-294. [38098]
12. Beal, F. E. L. 1915. Food of the robins and bluebirds of the United States. Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture No. 171. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 31 p. [24990]
13. Beilmann, August P.; Brenner, Louis G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 38: 261-281. [24439]
14. Belcher, Earl W., Jr.; Hitt, Robert G. 1965. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory: 12th annual report--fiscal year 1965. Macon, GA: Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory. 66 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [6522]
15. Belthoff, James R.; Ritchison, Gary. 1990. Roosting behavior of postfledging eastern screech-owls. Auk. 107(3): 567-579. [13296]
16. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
17. Bidwell, Terrence G.; Moseley, Mark E. 1989. Eastern redcedar: Oklahoma's centennial brush problem. Circular E-892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 3 p. [19237]
18. Blewett, Thomas J. 1986. Eastern redcedar's (Juniperus virginiana L.) expanded role in the prairie-forest border region. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings of the 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 122-124. [3546]
19. Borko, Martin. 1977. Short-eared owl food items in winter. Kingbird. 27(2): 80-81. [22502]
20. Bratton, Gerald F. 1990. Windbreak renovation studies--update, 1964-1989. In: Great Plains Agricultural Council, compiler. Windbreaks: Living with the wind: Proceedings, windbreak renovation workshop; 1990 October 23-25; Hutchinson, KS. Great Plains Agriculture Council Publ. No. 133. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 17-20. [15253]
21. Briggs, John M.; Gibson, David J. 1992. Effect of fire on tree spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 199(3): 300-307. [38010]
22. Briggs, John M.; Hoch, Greg A.; Johnson, Loretta C. 2002. Assessing the rate, mechanisms, and consequences of the conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems. 5: 578-586. [44579]
23. Briggs, John M.; Knapp, Alan K.; Brock, Brent L. 2002. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: a fifteen-year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. The American Midland Naturalist. 147(2): 287-294. [41386]
24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
25. Buehring, Normie; Santelmann, P. W.; Elwell, Harry M. 1971. Responses of eastern red cedar to control procedures. Journal of Range Management. 24: 378-382. [45747]
26. Bunger, Myron T.; Thomson, Hugh J. 1938. Root development as a factor in the success or failure of windbreak trees in the southern high plains. Journal of Forestry. 36: 790-803. [22084]
27. Callaway, Ragan M.; Walker, Lawrence R. 1997. Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology. 78(7): 1958-1965. [27660]
28. Chang, Ying-Pe. 1954. Bark structure of North American conifers. Technical Bulletin No. 1095. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 86 p. [43074]
29. Converse, Carmen K. 1983. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: [2003, September 9]. [45748]
30. Coppedge, Bryan R.; Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Masters, Ronald E.; Gregory, Mark S. 2002. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA. Landscape Ecology. 16(8): 677-690. [43382]
31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
32. DeSelm, Hal R.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Rennie, John C. 1991. Effects of 27 years of prescribed fire on an oak forest and its soils in middle Tennessee. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compiler. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Vol. 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 409-417. [17488]
33. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
34. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
35. Duguay, Tara A.; Ritchison, Gary; Duguay, Jeffrey P. 1997. The winter roosting behavior of eastern screech-owls in central Kentucky. Journal of Raptor Research. 31(3): 260-266. [43404]
36. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
37. Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1991. Fire-herbicide systems for manipulating juniper. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 397-401. [16659]
38. Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F.; Claypool, P. L. 1987. Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees. Journal of Range Management. 40(3): 237-239. [38017]
39. Engle, David M.; Kulbeth, James D. 1992. Fuel and weather related to kill of eastern redcedar from fire. Circular E-905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. (905): 14-15. [38020]
40. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1992. Enhancing control of eastern redcedar through individual plant ignition following prescribed burning. Journal of Range Management. 45: 493-495. [19392]
41. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1995. Fire behavior and fire effects on eastern redcedar in hardwood leaf-litter fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 5(3): 135-141. [26525]
42. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, Jimmy F.; Claypool, P. Larry. 1988. Effect of paraquat prescribed burning on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Weed Technology. 2(2): 172-174. [38021]
43. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
44. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 1. The specific characters. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(4): 410-418. [910]
45. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 2. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(5): 475-483. [4007]
46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
47. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2019. Flora of North America north of Mexico, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: [36990]
48. Fralish, James S. 1976. Forest site-community relationships in the Shawnee Hills region, southern Illinois. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 65-87. [3813]
49. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
50. Frost, Cecil C. 1995. Presettlement fire regimes in southeastern marshes, peatlands, and swamps. In: Cerulean, Susan I.; Engstrom, R. Todd, eds. Fire in wetlands: A management perspective: Proceedings, 19th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1993 November 3-6; Tallahassee, FL. No. 19. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 39-60. [26949]
51. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
52. Gehring, Janet L.; Bragg, Thomas B. 1992. Changes in prairie vegetation under eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) in an eastern Nebraska bluestem prairie. The American Midland Naturalist. 128(2): 209-217. [19788]
53. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
54. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
55. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
56. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
57. Grumbles, J. B. 1989. Control of eastern redcedar and ashe juniper with soil spot applications of picloram. Down to Earth. 45(1): 13-16. [11154]
58. Guyette, Richard P.; Cutter, Bruce E. 1991. Tree-ring analysis of fire history of a post oak savanna in the Missouri Ozarks. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 93-99. [38016]
59. Guyette, Richard; McGinnes, E. A., Jr. 1982. Fire history of an Ozark glade in Missouri. Transactions, Missouri Academy of Science. 16: 85-93. [5170]
60. Hall, Marion T. 1952. A hybrid swarm in Juniperus. Evolution. 6(4): 347-366. [19851]
61. Hall, Marion T. 1961. Notes on cultivated junipers. Butler University Botanical Studies. 14: 73-90. [19796]
62. Hall, Marion T.; Carr, Claudia J. 1968. Variability in Juniperus in the Palo Duro Canyon of western Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 13(1): 75-98. [4538]
63. Hall, Marion Trufant. 1952. Variation and hybridization in Juniperus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 39(1): 1-64. [19850]
64. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region; Southern Forest Experiment Station; Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
65. Harper, Roland M. 1912. The diverse habitats of the eastern red cedar and their interpretation. Torreya. 12(7): 145-154. [14187]
66. Hart, Jeffrey A.; Price, Robert A. 1990. The genera of Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 71(3): 275-322. [14597]
67. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forests. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Symposium proceedings; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
68. Hoch, G. A.; Briggs, J. M. 1999. Expansion of eastern red cedar in the northern Flint Hills, Kansas. In: Springer, J. T., ed. The central Nebraska loess hills prairie: Proceedings of the 16th North American prairie conference; 1998 July 26-29; Kearney, NE. No. 16. Kearney, NE: University of Nebraska: 9-15. [46041]
69. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
70. Johnson, A. Sydney; Hillestad, Hilburn O.; Shanholtzer, Sheryl Fanning; Shanholtzer, G. Frederick. 1974. An ecological survey of the coastal region of Georgia. Scientific Monograph Series No. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 233 p. [16102]
71. Joy, Deidre A.; Young, Donald R. 2002. Promotion of mid-successional seedling recruitment and establishment by Juniperus virginiana in a coastal environment. Plant Ecology. 160(2): 125-135. [43401]
72. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
73. Kaul, Robert P.; Keeler, Kathleen H. 1980. Effects of grazing and juniper canopy closure on the prairie flora in Nebraska high-plains canyons. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 95-105. [2923]
74. Kucera, C. L.; Ehrenreich, John H.; Brown, Carl. 1963. Some effects of fire on tree species in Missouri prairie. Iowa State Journal of Science. 38(3): 179-185. [3444]
75. Kucera, Clair L. 1981. Grasslands and fire. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 90-111. [4389]
76. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States: Map, [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]
77. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
78. Launchbaugh, John L.; Owensby, Clenton E. 1978. Kansas rangelands: Their management based on a half century of research. Bull. 622. Hays, KS: Kansas State University, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [9477]
79. Lauver, Chris L.; Kindscher, Kelly; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Schneider, Rick. 1999. A classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 44(4): 421-443. [38847]
80. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
81. Lawton, Robert O.; Cothran, Paul. 2000. Factors influencing reproductive activity of Juniperus virginiana in the Tennessee Valley. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 127(4): 271-279. [44558]
82. Lee, Scott A.; Cregg, Bert M.; Fleege, Clark. 1995. Propagation of Juniperus: challenges to propagation and opportunities for improvement. In: Landis, Thomas D.; Cregg, Bert, tech. coords. National proceedings: forest and conservation nursery associations; 1995 August 7-11; Kearney, NE and 1995 August 14-17; Mitchell, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-365. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Pacific Northwest Region: 47-51. [43409]
83. Lee, Scott Allen. 1996. Propagation of Juniperus for conservation plantings in the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 91 p. Thesis. [43379]
84. Lee, Sung-Suk; Lee, Hak-Ju; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, Don-Ha. 1999. Studies on biological activity of wood extractives. I. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of heartwood extractives. FRI (Forest Research Institute). Journal of Forest Science. 61: 82-89. [43430]
85. Limstrom, G. A.; Merz, R. W. 1949. Rehabilitation of lands stripped for coal in Ohio. Tech. Pap. No. 113. Columbus, OH: The Ohio Reclamation Association. 41 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. [4427]
86. Martin, S. Clark; Crosby, John S. 1955. Burning and grazing on glade range in Missouri. Technical Paper No. 147. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 13 p. [45745]
87. May, Dennis M. 1990. Big trees of the midsouth forest survey. Res. Note SO-359. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [10556]
88. Meissner, Heike E.; Silverman, Jules. 2001. Effects of aromatic cedar mulch on the Argentine ant and the odorous house ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomology. 94(6): 1526-1531. [43388]
89. Murphy, Dean A. 1970. Deer range appraisal in the Midwest. In: White-tailed deer in the Midwest: Proceedings of a symposium, 30th Midwest fish and wildlife conference; 1968 December 9; Columbus, OH. Res. Pap. NC-39. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 2-10. [13667]
90. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
91. Norris, Mark D.; Blair, John M.; Johnson, Loretta C.; McKane, Robert B. 2001. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 31: 1940-1946. [43224]
92. Ogden, J. Gordon, III. 1962. Forest history of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. I. Modern and pre-colonial forests. The American Midland Naturalist. 66(2): 417-430. [10118]
93. Ormsbee, P.; Bazzaz, F. A.; Boggess, W. R. 1976. Physiological ecology of Juniperus virginiana in oldfields. Oecologia. 23: 75-82. [13661]
94. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
95. Ortmann, John; Stubbendieck, James; Masters, Robert A.; Pfeiffer, George H.; Bragg, Thomas B. 1998. Efficacy and costs of controlling eastern redcedar. Journal of Range Management. 51(2): 158-163. [28938]
96. Owensby, Clenton E.; Blan, Kenneth R.; Eaton, B. J.; Russ, O. G. 1973. Evaluation of eastern redcedar infestations in the northern Kansas Flint Hills. Journal of Range Management. 26(4): 256-260. [45746]
97. Palma-Otal, M.; Moore, W. S.; Adams, R. P.; Joswiak, G. R. 1983. Morphological, chemical, and biogeographical analyses of a hybrid zone involving Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61(10): 2733-2746. [4960]
98. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
99. Prose, Bart L. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: plains sharp-tailed grouse. Biological Report 82(10.142). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Ecology Center. 31 p. [23499]
100. Quarterman, Elsie. 1950. Major plant communities of Tennessee cedar glades. Ecology. 31: 234-254. [11129]
101. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
102. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
103. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
104. Raup, Hugh M. 1940. Old field forests of southeastern New England. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 21: 266-273. [12135]
105. Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. Latham, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Natural Heritage Program. 96 p. [21441]
106. Rogers, Mitchell J.; Halls, Lowell K.; Dickson, James G. 1990. Deer habitat in the Ozark forests of Arkansas. Res. Pap. SO-259. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [41730]
107. Ross, James G.; Duncan, Robert E. 1949. Cytological evidences of hybridization between Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 76(6): 414-429. [71]
108. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
109. Schaefer, Peter R.; Baer, Norman B. 1988. An eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper provenance test for windbreak suitability in eastern South Dakota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 5: 129-132. [3684]
110. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
111. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
112. Small, Christine J.; Wentworth, Thomas R. 1998. Characterization of montane cedar-hardwood woodlands in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina. Castanea. 63(3): 241-261. [39637]
113. Smith, S. D.; Stubbendieck, James. 1989. Chemical control of eastern redcedar in mixed prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 147-150. [14033]
114. Smith, Stuart D.; Stubbendieck, James. 1990. Production of tall-grass prairie herbs below eastern redcedar. Prairie Naturalist. 22(1): 13-18. [39757]
115. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
116. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]
117. Stipe, Dan J.; Bragg, Thomas B. 1989. Effect of eastern red cedar on seedling establishment of prairie plants. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 101-102. [14026]
118. Stone, Caleb. 1998. The invasion of eastern red cedar, and its control. Journal of Natural Resource and Life Science Education. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. 27: 90-92. [43428]
119. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books. 1079 p. [23213]
120. Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Hale, Betsy J.; Hix, David M. 2000. Defining species guilds in the central hardwood forest, USA. Plant Ecology. 147: 1-19. [43742]
121. Swengel, Scott R.; Swengel, Ann B. 1987. Study of a northern saw-whet owl population in Sauk County, Wisconsin. In: Nero, Robert W.; Clark, Richard J.; Knapton, Richard J.; Hamre, R. H., eds. Biology and conservation of northern forest owls: Symposium proceedings; 1987 February 3-7; Winnipeg, MB. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-142. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 199-208. [17940]
122. Swihart, Robert K.; Picone, Peter M. 1998. Selection of mature growth stages of coniferous browse in temperate forests by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The American Midland Naturalist. 139(2): 269-274. [43383]
123. Tolliver, Kathryn S.; Martin, David W.; Young, Donald R. 1997. Freshwater and saltwater flooding response for woody species common to barrier island swales. Wetlands. 17(1): 10-18. [43406]
124. Turner, Rick L.; Reeves, Hershel C.; Legg, Michael H. 1994. Vegetational changes due to prescribed fire in Mission Texas State Park. Texas Journal of Science. 46(1): 61-71. [23154]
125. Tuttle, Gary. 2001. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Arbor Age. 21(2): 25. [43431]
126. Ugarte, Eduardo Aurelio. 1987. The hill prairies of northeast Iowa. Vegetation and dynamics. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 117 p. Dissertation. [38760]
127. USDA, NRCS. 2019. The PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC (Producer). Available: [34262]
128. Van Haverbeke, David F.; Read, Ralph A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. [9220]
129. Vasiliauskas, S. A.; Aarssen, L. W. 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology. 73(2): 622-632. [17844]
130. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
131. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Bulletin 55. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]
132. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
133. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Western Energy and Land Use Team. 347 p. Available from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161; PB-83-167023. [2458]
134. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: Eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
135. Westveld, Marinus; Ashman, R. I.; Baldwin, H. I.; Holdsworth, R. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Lambert, J. H.; Lutz, H. J.; Swain, Louis; Standish, Myles. 1956. Natural forest vegetation zones of New England. Journal of Forestry. 54(5): 332-338. [21311]
136. Wiggers, Ernie P.; Kritz, Kevin J. 1991. Comparison of nesting habitat of coexisting sharp-shinned and Cooper's hawks in Missouri. Wilson Bulletin. 103(4): 568-577. [23779]
137. Williams, Kimberlyn; Meads, Michael V.; Sauerbrey, Denise A. 1998. The roles of seedling salt tolerance and resprouting in forest zonation on the west coast of Florida, USA. American Journal of Botany. 85(12): 1745-1752. [42073]
138. Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steven; Likens, Russell; Payne, Kirk; Eisenbraun, Edmund J. 1999. Biomass and oil content of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). In: Haywood, James D., ed. Proceedings, 10th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1999 February 16-18; Shreveport, LA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-30. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station: 546-551. [34453]
139. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
140. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Linne, James M., ed. BLM guidelines for prairie/plains plant communities to incorporate fire use/management into activity plans and fire use plans. In: Prairie prescribed burning symposium and workshop: Proceedings; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: V-1 to V-12. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. [3249]
141. Yao, Jin; Holt, Robert D.; Rich, Paul M.; Marshall, Wendy S. 1999. Woody plant colonization in an experimentally fragmented landscape. Ecography. 22(6): 715-728. [43429]
142. Yeager, A. F. 1935. Root systems of certain trees and shrubs grown on prairie soils. Journal of Agricultural Research. 51(12): 1085-1092. [3748]
143. Zhu, Betty C. R.; Henderson, Gregg; Chen, Feng; Fei, Huixin; Laine, Roger A. 2001. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 27(8): 1617-1625. [43402]