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SPECIES:  Tilia americana
American basswood fruits. Creative Commons image by Chris Evans, University of Illinois,


SPECIES: Tilia americana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Tilia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
Revisions: Infrataxa and citation [70] were added on 17 July 2014. The common name was changed in FEIS from: bassswood to: American basswood. Images were added on 3 March 2018. ABBREVIATION: TILAME TILAMEA TILAMEC TILAMEH SYNONYMS: For Tilia americana L. var. americana: T. americana var. neglecta (Spach.) Fosberg [47] For Tilia americana L. var. caroliniana: Tilia floridana Small For Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla: Tilia heterophylla Vent. Tilia michauxii Nutt. NRCS PLANT CODE: TIAM TIAMA TIAMC TIAMH COMMON NAMES: American basswood basswood linden TAXONOMY: The scientific name for American basswood is Tilia americana L. [47,29]. Varieties include [70]: Tilia americana L. var. americana, American basswood Tilia americana L. var. caroliniana (Mill.) Castigl., Carolina basswood Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, American basswood LIFE FORM: Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Tilia americana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: The native range of American basswood extends from southwestern New Brunswick and Maine west to southern Quebec, southern and western Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and southeastern Manitoba; south to eastern North Dakota, northern and eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and northeastern Oklahoma; east to northern Arkansas, Tennessee, western North Carolina, and New Jersey [47].

Distributions of Tilia americana var. americana, Tilia americana var. caroliniana, and Tilia americana var. heterophylla, respectively. Area shaded in blue denotes introduced range. Maps courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [70] [2018, March 3].

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES19  Aspen - birch

     AR  CT  DE  IL  IN  IA  KS  KY  ME  MD
     MA  MI  MN  MO  NE  NH  NJ  NY  NC  ND
     OH  OK  PA  RI  SC  SD  TN  VT  VA  WV
     WI  MB  NB  ON  PQ


   K081  Oak savanna
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K099  Maple - basswood forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K101  Elm - ash forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K103  Mixed mesophytic forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest
   K108  Northern hardwoods - spruce forest

     1  Jack pine
    16  Aspen
    20  White pine - northern red oak - red maple
    21  Eastern white pine
    23  Eastern hemlock
    24  Hemlock - yellow birch
    25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    26  Sugar maple - basswood
    27  Sugar maple
    28  Black cherry - maple
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42  Bur oak
    52  White oak - black oak - northern red oak
    55  Northern red oak
    58  Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock
    59  Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak


American basswood generally occurs in mixed stands and rarely forms pure stands
[16].  It is codominant in the sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-American basswood
cover type, and is a common component of many other mesophytic forests [24].

Associates in the sugar maple-American basswood type include white ash (Fraxinus
americana), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), eastern hophornbeam
(Ostrya americana), red maple (A. rubrum), and American elm (Ulmus
americana) [16,24].  Typical sugar maple-American basswood communities in
Wisconsin and Minnesota include 21 percent northern red oak, 35 percent
American basswood, 17 percent sugar maple, and 17 percent other species [68].  To
the east, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) may be present, and
communities on mesic sites would be more like the following: 52 percent
sugar maple, 27 percent American basswood, 14 percent yellow birch (Betula
alleghaniensis), 4 percent eastern hemlock, and 3 percent other species [68].

Publications in which American basswood is listed as a dominant, codominant,
or indicator species include:

The vegetation of Wisconsin [17]
The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley [18]
Deciduous forest [31]
A forest classification for the Maritime Provinces [49]
A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America [53].


SPECIES: Tilia americana
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE: American basswood wood is soft and light; it is valued for hand carving and has many other uses including cooperage, boxes, veneer, excelsior, and pulp [15,16]. American basswood is economically important for timber, especially in the Great Lakes States [16]. Carey and Gill [11] rated American basswood as fair (their lowest rating) for firewood. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: American basswood is preferred browse for white-tailed deer [67]. American basswood flowers are visited by honeybees for nectar [16]. The easily decayed wood produces a disproportionate number of cavities which are used by cavity-nesting animals including wood ducks [21], pileated woodpeckers [34], other birds, and small mammals [11]. Carey and Gill [11] rate American basswood as fair (their lowest rating) for all wildlife. PALATABILITY: NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE: NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: American basswood is of limited use in mixed hardwood plantings on disturbed sites in Ohio [75]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: American basswood is planted as a shade tree or ornamental [16]. The fibrous inner bark ("bast") has been used as a source of fiber for rope, mats, fish nets, and woven baskets [15,16]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: American basswood stump sprouts can be managed for sawtimber [16]. The number of stump sprouts declines with the age and size of the cut trees [7]. Since sprouts originating at or below the ground line are more resistant to butt rot, stumps should be cut very close to the ground [46] or burned [57]. Early thinning of sprouts is needed to ensure good quality and rapid growth [16]. In West Virginia an average of 14.4 7-year-old stump sprouts per clump was removed to allow good growth of the remaining one or two stems [45]. Larger stems (greater than 51.7 inches [1.31 m] d.b.h. will also respond to release [63]. Direct seeding may also have potential for good American basswood regeneration [20]; natural seed reproduction can be encouraged by shelterwood cutting systems [16]. Shelterwood systems also enhance American basswood production where advance regeneration is large enough to compete successfully with other hardwoods and shrubs [7]. Advance growth should be 2 feet (0.6 m) or more in height before the overstory is harvested [42]. Sites that are harvested to 60 percent residual stems may need to be cut again to allow the best growth of northern hardwoods (including American basswood) [55]. Even-aged management systems can also be used successfully for American basswood, particularly where sprouts have been properly thinned [23]. American basswood and other tolerant species are often established in the understory of oak (Quercus spp.)-hickory (Carya spp.) stands, and tend to take over a site when the overstory is harvested, regardless of the silvicultural system used [61]. American basswood invasion of mixed oak stands is a problem for oak regeneration in Wisconsin [13]. High densities of white-tailed deer can result in American basswood seedling height growth reduction or even complete loss of American basswood from the stand due to overbrowsing [67]. On old-field sites American basswood is often subject to damage from mice and voles girdling the stems. Rabbits also feed heavily on seedlings and small saplings. Seed predators include mice, squirrels, and chipmunks [16]. Insect pests of American basswood include the linden borer (which damages weak, very young, or "overmature" trees) and the following defoliators: linden looper, American basswood leafminer, spring cankerworm, fall cankerworm, white-masked tussock moth, gypsy moth, and forest tent caterpillar. None of these pests is considered a serious threat [16]. American basswood is easily decayed by fungi, and butt rot is an important factor in loss of merchantable timber [16]. American basswood is susceptible to many herbicides, but is resistant to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T [8].


SPECIES: Tilia americana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: American basswood is a native deciduous tree. Mature heights range from 75 to 130 feet (23-40 m) with diameter ranges from 36 to 48 inches (91-122 cm) [16]. The bark of mature trees is up to 1 inch (2.54 cm) thick at the base of the trunk [2,15]. The bark is furrowed into narrow, flat-topped, firm ridges with characteristic horizontal cracks; young trees have smooth, thin bark [15]. The inflorescence is a drooping axillary cyme. The fruit is dry, hard, indehiscent, subglobose to short-oblong, and is usually 0.2 to 0.28 inch (5-7 mm) in diameter, and bears one or two seeds [29]. The root system of American basswood is composed largely of lateral roots; it does not usually form a taproot [16]. American basswood root depths are usually shallow relative to associated species root depths. In prairie soils bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), shellbark hickory (Carya lacinosa), and northern red oak all have deeper roots than does American basswood. Maximum root depth in American basswood averages 1.2 feet (36.5 cm) the first year, and 5 to 6 feet (1.5-1.8 m) by the third year; roots are not well developed below approximately 2 feet (61 cm) [73]. On prairie soils the deepest roots of a 28-year-old American basswood were 27 feet (8.2 m) but most of the roots were in the top 4 to 5 feet (1.2-1.5 m) of soil [74]. Adventitious roots will develop as the stem is buried, as occurs on the sand dunes near southern Lake Michigan [16]. The tree crown is usually broad and rounded, but in close stands is more columnar. The branches are small, weak, and often pendulous [2]. Maximum longevity is approximately 200 years [16]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: The youngest recorded age at which American basswood first reproduces is 15 years [48]. American basswood flowers are insect pollinated, mostly by bees and flies [16]. American basswood produces good quantities of seed at 1- to 3-year intervals [16,30]. The relatively heavy fruits are not usually carried long distances by the wind [42,52]. Seeds can remain dormant for up to 3 years [42]. This deep dormancy is thought to be caused by an impermeable seedcoat, dormant embryo, and tough pericarp. Acid scarification and cold stratification enhance seed germination on mineral soil [16,42,58], but few seeds actually germinate under normal conditions [16]. Shade enhances establishment and initial survival, but heavy shade limits subsequent growth and development [16]. Seedlings can establish in as little as 25 percent of full sunlight [55]. The higher soil temperatures in forest openings are better suited for good seedling growth [16], but seedlings are sensitive to soil nutrient deficiencies which may render them less tolerant to shade than older trees [69]. However, dense reproduction is only obtained under partial canopies [42]. Most American basswood reproduction originates as stump sprouts. Almost all American basswood trees 4 inches (10 cm) or less d.b.h. will sprout from the stump, and more than 50 percent of sawlog-size trees will sprout as well [16]. Sprouts have been obtained from American basswood trees over 100 years old; 57 percent of trees 20 inches [50.8 cm] or more in diameter sprouted [46]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: American basswood is characteristically found in rich uplands on mid-slopes in mixed deciduous forests. It is sometimes found in swamps [71]. American basswood is generally confined to sandy loams, loams, or silt loams, and achieves its best growth on the finer textured soils. Best growth is on mesic sites, but American basswood will also grow on coarse soils that are well drained. In Wisconsin American basswood exhibits a bimodal distribution with respect to moisture; it achieves peak importance values on wet-mesic sites and on dry-mesic sites, but is "outcompeted" by sugar maple on mesic sites [17]. In southern Wisconsin, maple-American basswood forests are largely restricted to northern exposures [2]. American basswood is moderately tolerant of flooding; it occurs on floodplain sites that have probabilities of annual flooding between 50 and 100 percent [54]. Acceptable soil pH ranges from 4.5 to 7.5, though American basswood occurs most often on less acidic to slightly basic soils. Because American basswood is nitrogen demanding it grows poorly on nitrogen deficient soils [16]. At the western limits of its range, American basswood usually grows on the eastern side of lakes and along major drainages where it is naturally protected from fire. American basswood is commonly found in ravines and protected, moist sites at the prairie-woodlands interface in Nebraska [2]. In North Dakota and Minnesota American basswood achieves its highest densities on intermediate slopes; it is found in lower numbers on both the drier uplands and the wet bottomlands [72]. According to Crow [16], American basswood's distribution is more closely associated with edaphic and moisture conditions than with fire. The maximum elevation at which American basswood is found is 4,930 feet (1500 m) in the southern Appalachian Mountains [22]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Facultative Seral Species American basswood is moderately tolerant of shade. It achieves its highest densities in sugar maple-American basswood stands that are late successional to climax forests. Sugar maple-American basswood can eventually replace oak-hickory on favorable upland sites in the upper Midwest. Succession of oak-hickory to sugar maple-American basswood can be accelerated where harvesting or other disturbance releases the tolerant understory species [40]. Braun [9] classified American basswood as a member of the regional climax forest in Ohio that also contains American beech (Fagus grandifolia), ash (Fraxinus spp.), sugar maple, and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). In eastern Nebraska northern red oak and American basswood are described as climax dominants at the western limits of the forest [2]. In New York American basswood is a subclimax species, where it may increase in importance after heavy logging [6]. In Minnesota sugar maple-American basswood communities are climax on fine mineral soils. In Itasca State Park, Minnesota, succession from prairie to white pine (Pinus strobus)-bur oak to sugar maple-American basswood is explained by fire exclusion and/or increased moisture. The authors concluded available evidence supports the climate model better than the fire exclusion model [10]. The persistence of the moderately shade tolerant American basswood in stands containing highly shade tolerant sugar maple is dependent on their differing modes of reproduction. Sugar maple produces large numbers of seedlings which are positively correlated with the occurrence of American basswood in the canopy [27]. Stump sprouting allows American basswood to maintain itself in a stand with the more shade-tolerant sugar maple; American basswood stump sprouts can reach canopy size faster than the more numerous maple seedlings [16,27,71]. Patchy or large scale disturbance may favor American basswood because of its sprouting ability and presence in the understory. American basswood increased in relative importance value after a tornado caused severe damage to a sugar maple-Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra) stand in Indiana. The source of the increase was not specified by the authors; it may have come from stump sprouts and/or released individuals, coupled with the loss of other species [51]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: American basswood usually flowers in June, but flowering dates range from late May to early July [16]. Flowering occurs from 1 to 4 weeks after spring leaf-out [1,16]. In Minnesota, bud swell occurs in from late April to early May, and leafing out occurs from early to mid-May. Seeds are dispersed in October, and leaf fall occurs from September to October [1].


SPECIES: Tilia americana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: American basswood is rated as a fire sensitive species; the thin bark is easily damaged by fire, as are the shallow roots [16]. However, American basswood that has been top-killed by fire will sprout vigorously from the root crown [71]. American basswood is most common in forests with long fire-free intervals. Fire suppression has apparently encouraged its increase. In the absence of fire, paper birch (Betula papyrifera)-eastern white pine-bur oak forests are being replaced in by American basswood, balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra) in the north-central states [1]. American basswood and sugar maple usually replace postfire aspen stands (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata) on rich, moist sites in Minnesota [33]. The presence of sugar maple-American basswood stands is correlated with longer fire-free intervals in Minnesota; pines (including white pine, red pine [Pinus resinosa] and jack pine [P. banksiana]) and aspens occur on sites that burn more frequently [14]. In jack pine or red pine-white pine stands which experience frequent fire, American basswood is rare [36]. American basswood occurs in moist canyons in Nebraska that appear to be refuges from fire [35]. Also in Nebraska, American basswood and other hardwoods are more common than they were 130 years ago, and it is thought that this is related to a decrease in the frequency and severity of fires [60]. In New England northern hardwood forests that include American basswood typically have fire-free periods on the order of 800 to more than 2,000 years [25]. Many authors report that hardwood forests including American basswood are encroaching onto former grasslands since fires have been suppressed [1,3,38,60,72]. In Iowa oak savanna is replaced by dense sugar maple-American basswood forest process in approximately 200 years without fire [56]. In Wisconsin American basswood are invading mixed oak stands from which they had formerly been excluded by wildfire [13]. However, Auclair and Cottam [5] stated that this is not a general trend; succession to sugar maple-American basswood is confined to specific sites largely because of fragmentation of forests and the resultant lack of seed sources. They do concur that red oak stands may represent sugar maple-American basswood sites that have either been retrogressed to oak by fire, or from which sugar maple and American basswood have been excluded by fire [5]. A stand of American basswood and eastern hophornbeam in Minnesota contained scattered open-grown, large bur oaks. The American basswood and eastern hophornbeam were even-aged. Sugar maple was not present in the dominant layer even though its presence would normally be expected. The forest structure was explained by Daubenmire [19] as a sugar maple-American basswood stand that had experienced a brief period of burning. Daubenmire proposed the following relationship of sugar maple-American basswood forests to fire: 1) sugar maple is eliminated by single fires; 2) repeated fires eliminate elms and red oak and leave American basswood and eastern hophornbeam as sprout thickets; 3) continued fires can eliminate American basswood and eastern hophornbeam thickets, which are replaced by bur oak and grasses; 4) severe fires will eventually eliminate bur oak, leaving prairie. The structure of the forest described above was explained as the result of sugar maple-American basswood-eastern hophornbeam invasion of a bur oak savanna (possibly stage 3). The sugar maple forest developed to maturity without experiencing fire. This forest then experienced a short period of burning (perhaps only one fire) and had reached stage 2 when burning ceased, leaving the American basswood and eastern hophornbeam to grow up into an even-aged canopy. Daubenmire concluded that the climatic limits of sugar maple-American basswood are further west than the actual limits due to fire [19]. In Iowa oak savanna is replaced by dense sugar maple-American basswood forest, the process occurring over the course of approximately 200 years without fire [56]. Mature sugar maple-American basswood forests are very resistant to burning. Decomposition of potential fuels is rapid, particularly on base-rich mull soils. Dense shade reduces the numbers and cover of shrubs and herbaceous species, and therefore very little fuel exists at ground level. The tree trunks are not very flammable, and the open crowns do not carry fire well. Low solar radiation, high relative humidity, and low wind speeds enhance the moisture retention of ground-level fuels, thereby inhibiting ignition and/or spread of fire. Ordinarily, only the leaf litter ever reaches a flammable state, creating conditions conducive only to patchy, creeping surface fires [32]. The Minnesota Big Woods (sugar maple-American basswood cover type) is often described as an old, stable, climax forest. New evidence suggests that in fact, these woods are of comparatively recent origin [65]. Climate factors (increased moisture and lower temperatures) contributed to a natural decrease in the frequency and intensity of fire. Once established, sugar maple-American basswood forests do not burn easily [32], creating conditions in which these forests were able to survive climatic warming and increases in fire frequency. The extent of these woods has been greatly reduced by human activities, but they have also experienced lower danger from fire since humans have stopped setting fires and have been active in suppressing fires [65]. American basswood occurs in aspen forests which are of postfire origin and fire-maintained. The fire regime in these woods usually consists of short fire intervals (on the order of 10 years) with low intensity surface fires. Where these forests are protected from fire, closed canopies and higher species diversity develop [37]. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker


SPECIES: Tilia americana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: In Illinois a prescribed fall fire was conducted to open up areas that had previously been classified as oak savanna. The low intensity fire burned into adjacent closed canopy sugar maple-American basswood forest. Fuel loading in the closed forest was approximately 530 g/sq m. Mortality of American basswood stems under 4 inches in diameter (10 cm) was close to 10 percent (some of these were apparently only top-killed). Larger stems were apparently unaffected by the fire [4]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: A prescribed fire in an aspen stand in which American basswood occurred top-killed most of the trees in the stand. Those stems not killed by the fire were felled to eliminate overstory competition. All of the top-killed American basswood stems sprouted (stems ranged in size from 4 to 17 inches [10-43 cm] in diameter), producing an average of 21 sprouts per clump within 5 years of the fire [57]. Fire wounding of American basswood increases susceptibility to butt rot [15]: of trees with basal fire wounds, 100 percent of American basswood stems had butt rot, resulting in a cull rate of 39 percent [39]. Light surface fires favor sugar maple seedlings over American basswood (and other hardwoods). Hotter fires destroy existing reproduction of sugar maple and create openings favoring American basswood. American basswood sprouts are less abundant in stands escaping fire for extremely long periods of time, presumably because the heavy shade created by very dense stands is not tolerated by American basswood reproduction [50]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan and the Research paper by Bowles and others 2007 provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of several plant species, including American basswood, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: The high heat value of American basswood wood is reported as 8,342 Btu per pound, the low heat value averages 7,817 Btu per pound. The rate of fire spread under laboratory conditions for American basswood wood is higher than that in white fir (Abies concolor), sugar maple, southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). American basswood contains an oil that is rich in volatile fatty acids [26]. Small American basswood slash, up to 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter, is usually very quick to rot; that of most northern hardwood species, including American basswood, is almost completely decayed in 4 to 7 years. Under average conditions, American basswood logs and stumps are not a serious source of fire danger after 10 to 12 years, and after 15 to 18 years, nothing remains except mounds of moldy wood [62]. American basswood logs and slash are easily water saturated, however, which slows the rate of decay [64]. Fuel values for herbicide-killed American basswood (as firewood) have been reported [12]. Prescribed fire is not recommended for established stands of hardwoods in which American basswood occurs; basal fire wounds increase susceptibility to butt rot [39]. Use of fire in cut stands may improve resistance to butt rot in the next generation of American basswood, since fire lowers the level at which stump sprouts form [57].


SPECIES: Tilia americana
REFERENCES: 1. Ahlgren, C. E. 1974. Effects of fires on temperate forests: north central United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 195-223. [13110] 2. Aikman, John M. 1926. Distribution and structure of the forests of eastern Nebraska. University Studies. 26(1-2): 1-75. [6575] 3. Antrobius, William; Tagestad, Arden; Brumbaugh, Craig; Kresl, Steve. 1992. Integrated pest management & forest health for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve. Report No. 91-11. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1 Timber, Cooperative Forestry and Pest Management. 21 p. [18429] 4. Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Haney, Alan W. 1990. Management of degraded oak savanna remnants in the upper Midwest: preliminary results from three years of study. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration `89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 280-291. [14705] 5. Auclair, Allan N.; Cottam, Grant. 1971. Dynamics of black cherry (Prunus serotina Erhr.) in southern Wisconsin oak forests. Ecological Monographs. 41(2): 153-177. [8102] 6. Barrett, John W.; Ketchledge, Edwin H.; Satterlund, Donald R., eds. 1961. Forestry in the Adirondacks. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, State University College of Forestry. 139 p. [21405] 7. Beck, Donald E. 1988. Regenerating cove hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 156-166. [13943] 8. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899] 9. Braun, E. Lucy. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Ohio. Ecological Monographs. 6(1): 91-149. [8379] 10. Buell, Murray F.; Cantlon, John E. 1951. A study of two forest stands in Minnesota with an interpretation of the prairie-forest margin. Ecology. 32(2): 294-316. [3251] 11. Carey, Andrew B. 1983. Cavities in trees in hardwood forests. In: Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical coordinators. Snag habitat management: proceedings of the symposium; 1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 167-184. [17833] 12. Cassens, Daniel L.; Fischer, Burnell C. 1980. Fuel values of chemically deadened white oak and basswood trees. 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Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 784-791. [21826] 17. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116] 18. Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal. 147 p. [8925] 19. Daubenmire, Rexford F. 1936. The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils. Ecological Monographs. 6(2): 233-268. [2697] 20. Davidson, Walter H. 1988. Potential for planting hardwoods in the Appalachians. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 255-268. [13951] 21. Dugger, Katie M.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1992. Life history and habitat needs of the wood duck. 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