SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Howard, Janet L. 1994. Toxicodendron diversilobum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
Rhus diversiloba Torr. & A. Gray 
NRCS PLANT CODE :
COMMON NAMES :
Pacific poison oak
The currently accepted scientific name of Pacific poison-oak is Toxicodendron
diversilobum (Torr. & Gray) E. Greene (Anacardiacae) . Pacific poison-oak
and western poison-ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii) hybridize in the Columbia River
Gorge area .
LIFE FORM :
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
OTHER STATUS :
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Pacific poison-oak is distributed from Baja California north to British
Columbia [31,45,58]. It occurs west of the Cascade Range in Washington,
Oregon, and California  and is ubiquitous in California west of the Sierra
Nevada and the Mojave Desert .
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
CA OR WA MEXICO BC
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K009 Pine - cypress forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K026 Oregon oakwoods
K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K030 California oakwoods
K034 Montane chaparral
K035 Coastal sagebrush
SAF COVER TYPES :
213 Grand fir
222 Black cottonwood - willow
224 Western hemlock
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock
231 Port Orford-cedar
233 Oregon white oak
234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone
235 Cottonwood - willow
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
246 California black oak
247 Jeffrey pine
248 Knobcone pine
249 Canyon live oak
250 Blue oak - gray pine
255 California coast live oak
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Pacific poison-oak occurs in mixed evergreen forests [29,30,32,59], woodlands,
chaparral, [25,26,27], coastal sage scrub , and riparian zones
[25,26,27,39,58]. It is the most widespread shrub in California .
Holland  described a Pacific poison-oak chaparral community type that may be
maintained by frequent fire. Because it is dominated by Pacific poison-oak,
little is known of its community composition.
Many of the plant species commonly associated with Pacific poison-oak were
previously listed under DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE information. Other
common associates follow, listed by community type.
Associates in mixed evergreen forests include Pacific madrone (Arbutus
menziesii), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), bigleaf maple (Acer
macrophyllum), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), California bay
(Umbellularia californica), and chinquapin (Chrysolepsis chrysophylla)
Woodland associates include valley oak (Quercus lobata), interior live
oak (Q. wislizenii), Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) , Coulter pine
(P. coulteri) , bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa) [8,64],
and California walnut (Juglans californica) .
Chaparral associates include toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), chamise
(Adenostoma fasciculatum), and California scrub oak (Quercus dumosa).
Coastal sage scrub associates include California sagebrush (Artemisia
californica), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis), and sugar sumac (Rhus
Pacific poison-oak associates in riparian zones include bigleaf maple,
California sycamore (Plantus racemosa), white alder (Alnus rhombifolia),
, boxelder (Acer negundo), willow (Salix spp.), California
blackberry (Rubus vitifolius), toyon, and wild grape (Vitis spp.) .
Published classifications naming Pacific poison-oak as a dominant part of the
Description and classification of the forests of the upper Illinois
River drainage of southwestern Oregon 
Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province 
Coast redwood ecological types of southern Monterey County, California 
Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park 
Plant association and management guide: Siuslaw National Forest 
Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest 
The community composition of California coastal sage scrub 
Plant associations within the Interior Valleys of the Umpqua River
Basin, Oregon 
The vascular plant communities of California 
An introduction to the plant communities of the Santa Ana and San
Jacinto Mountains .
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE :
Black-tailed deer and all classes of livestock browse Pacific poison-oak .
It is the most important black-tailed deer browse in some areas of
California [5,6]. Birds eat Pacific poison-oak fruits .
Pacific poison-oak palatability is rated good to fair for horses and deer; and
fair to poor for cattle, sheep, and goats .
NUTRITIONAL VALUE :
Percent crude protein in Pacific poison-oak foliage collected throughout
California averaged 24.2 in March, 20.6 in May, 10.1 in July, and 6.5 in
September . Pacific poison-oak is relatively high in phosphorus, sulfur,
and calcium as compared to other browse species . The following
mineral content (percentage basis) was reported for the foliage :
Ca P K Mg S
1.00 0.23 1.13 0.59 0.19
COVER VALUE :
The federally endangered least Bell's vireo uses Pacific poison-oak for nest
sites in oak woodlands .
Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii)/Pacific poison-oak woodlands contribute
to bird diversity and density in California . A rare colony of
ringtail was found inhabiting a Fremont cottonwood/Pacific poison-oak woodland
on the Sacramento River .
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES :
Pacific poison-oak has been recommended for use in restoration projects.
Information on propagation and handling methods to "minimize risks" to
planting crews is available . Having worked on field crews in the
Sierra Nevada foothills, however, this author recommends using native
shrubs other than Pacific poison-oak for restoration.
OTHER USES AND VALUES :
Urushiol has been found to mediate DNA strand scission. This activity
may have application in DNA sequence studies .
Native Americans used the stems to make baskets and the sap to cure
ringworm [15,60]. Chumash Indians used Pacific poison-oak sap to remove warts,
corns, and calluses; to cauterize sores; and to stop bleeding. They
drank a decoction made from Pacific poison-oak roots to treat dysentery .
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Safety/Medical: The entire Pacific poison-oak plant is covered with oily resin.
Human dermatitis results when skin comes in direct contact with the oil,
either by touching the plant or touching something that has contacted
it, such as clothing or firewood. Urushiol is the poison present in the
oil . Pacific poison-oak does not cause dermatitis in wildlife or
livestock, but pets may react to it . (See FIRE MANAGEMENT.) American
folklore holds that drinking the milk of Pacific poison-oak-fed goats bolsters
the immune system against Pacific poison-oak because the poison is present in
the milk in trace amounts. Drinking the milk probably does not grant
immunity, however. Analysis of milk from does fed a straight Pacific poison-oak
diet for 3 days showed no trace of urushiol. Some urushiol was present
in the does' urine, but most was apparently catabolized .
Control: Pacific poison-oak is controlled by glyphosate, triclopyr, or 2,4,5-T.
Used alone, 2,4-D is ineffective. Goats are an effective biological
Other: Pacific poison-oak vines sometimes kill their support plant by
smothering or breaking it .
Pacific poison-oak blossoms are a source of good honey .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Pacific poison-oak is a many-stemmed, deciduous, native shrub or woody vine.
Shrubs are erect with stems from 2 to 6 feet (1-2 m) tall. Vine stems
commonly reach 10 to 30 feet (3-10 m), but may be as long as 100 feet
(30 m) . As a vine, Pacific poison-oak climbs trees or other support by
adventitious roots and/or wedging stems within grooves or crevices of
the support [7,22,62]. The bright green leaves have three (sometimes
five) round to ovate, diversely lobed or toothed leaflets that usually
resemble oak leaves [45,62]. Small flowers occur in leaf axils, with
male and female flowers on separate plants [38,53]. The fruits are
white drupes . Rhizomes are at or just below the soil surface, and
are extensive .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
Pacific poison-oak reproduces vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizomes and
root crown after disturbance such as fire or browsing has removed
topgrowth [15,44,53]. It also reproduces by layering when vine stems
contact the ground .
Pacific poison-oak seeds are dispersed by birds . Seedlings occur both
before and after fire, suggesting that the seeds do not depend upon fire
for scarification. The seeds have a gummy seedcoat which leaches off
very slowly, resulting in delayed germination .
Pacific poison-oak is propagated by stem cuttings .
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Pacific poison-oak generally grows in acid soils, and is not limited to any
particular soil texture or drainage pattern. It occurs on well-drained
slopes and in riparian zones [1,39,64]. It is found at elevations of
less than 5,000 feet (1,524 m) west of the Sierra Nevada, growing on all
aspects . In the Siskiyou Mountains it is found at up to 4,400-foot
(1,340-m) elevations on steep southern exposures .
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Facultative Seral Species
Pacific poison-oak is a somewhat shade-tolerant species commonly occurring in
seral woodland and mixed evergreen forest understories [51,56]. It is
considered a climax species on south-slope Douglas-fir forests of the
Willamette Valley foothills, Oregon . In climax oak woodland,
Pacific poison-oak cover may reach 25 to 50 percent .
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
Pacific poison-oak leaf buds open from February to March, and stems elongate
from March to April . Flowering occurs from March to
June . Leaves drop from late July to early October ,
and fruits disperse in summer and fall [37,53].
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS :
Pacific poison-oak's primary postfire regeneration strategy is vigorous
sprouting from the root crown and/or rhizomes [16,46,68].
Fire is not required for Pacific poison-oak seed germination. Keeley ,
however, reported a significant (p<0.001) increase in germination when
seeds were exposed to charate. Postfire seedlings probably originate
from both soil-stored seed and fresh seed dispersed by birds.
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page
under "Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT :
Fire top-kills Pacific poison-oak [13,16]. Wirtz  reported that an October,
1953, wildfire in a coastal sage scrub/grassland community near
Berkeley, California, top-killed all Pacific poison-oak present, leaving only
large branches and stumps.
Rhizomes on the soil surface are probably killed by all but
light-severity fire, and shallowly buried rhizomes are probably killed
by moderate to severe fire. More deeply buried rhizomes are probably
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
See this Fire Study in FEIS for further information on prescribed fire and
postfire responses of many plant community species including Pacific poison-oak:
Damage and recovery in southern Sierra Nevada foothill oak woodland after
a severe ground fire (blue oak-interior live oak/annual grass community)
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE :
Pacific poison-oak sprouts vigorously from the root crown and/or rhizomes after
fire [13,15,43,46,52]. It sprouts in the first postfire growing season,
and for several years thereafter [13,16,52]. Pacific poison-oak sprouts were
noted the September following the July, 1985, Wheeler Fire on the Los
Padres National Forest, California. The wildfire had spread into a
riparian zone containing Pacific poison-oak; prefire Pacific poison-oak density was
unknown. By postfire year 3, Pacific poison-oak sprouts dominated most burn
plots in the riparian zone .
Westman and others  estimated that Pacific poison-oak fails to sprout when
fire reaction intensity exceeds 200 kcal/sec/sq m. Their estimate was
derived by modelling fire behavior of a backfire set in coastal sage
scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains of California, and observing
sprouting the following year. The coastal sage scrub had not burned for
20 to 22 years.
Pacific poison-oak also establishes from seed after fire, although this response
is not well documented in the literature. Pacific poison-oak seedlings were
observed following site preparation and prescribed burning of an
interior live oak-blue oak woodland in Madera County, California.
Prefire Pacific poison-oak seedling density was 0 percent; seedling density at
postfire year 1 was 42 per 8,712 square feet .
Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California
black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca State Park,
California provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire
response of many mixed-conifer woodland species including Pacific poison-oak.
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
Fire response is probably related to Poison oak's successional role in
the plant community. Dense Pacific poison-oak thickets may develop in chaparral
that is control burned several times . Pacific poison-oak may become
locally extinct in Douglas-fir forest, however, that is burned every 4
years for 20 years or more .
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Urushiol volatilizes when burned, and human exposure to Pacific poison-oak smoke
is extremely hazardous . The smoke often poisons people who think
they are immune to the plant .
Pacific poison-oak vines are a ladder fuel .
Goats can be used as an alternative to prescribed fire for fire hazard
reduction at urban-wildland interfaces. Near Oakland, California, goats
were put on a Monterey pine-redgum (Eucalyptus camaldensis) forest with
a heavy shrub understory and on an adjacent site where the forest was
managed as a fuelbreak and had less shrub cover in the understory. Goat
utilization of Pacific poison-oak was in the fuelbreak 67 percent, somewhat
lower than utilization of toyon, California blackberry, and coyote brush.
Annual production of Pacific poison-oak biomass before goat browsing in the
fuelbreak was 99 kilograms per hectare; it was 33 kilograms per hectare
afterwards. Total biomass of forage species was significantly (p<0.05)
A stocking rate of 600 goats per hectare on the Oakland site broke the
vertical live fuel continuity in the dense shrub stand. Initial goat
browsing to reduce biomass and vertical fuel continuity could be
followed up by prescribed fire .
SPECIES: Toxicodendron diversilobum
1. Atzet, Thomas. 1979. Description and classification of the forests of
the upper Illinois River drainage of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR:
Oregon State University. 211 p. Dissertation. 
2. Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of
the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p. 
3. Belluomini, Linda; Trapp, Gene R. 1984. Ringtail distribution and
abundance in the Central Valley of California. In: Warner, Richard E.;
Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,
conservation, and productive management. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press: 906-914. 
4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
5. Bissell, Harold D.; Strong, Helen. 1955. The crude protein variations in
the browse diet of California deer. California Fish and Game. 41(2):
6. Biswell, H. H. 1961. Manipulation of chamise brush for deer range
improvement. California Fish and Game. 47(2): 125-144. 
7. Bolsinger, Charles L. 1989. Shrubs of California's chaparral,
timberland, and woodland: area, ownership, and stand characteristics.
Res. Bull. PNW-RB-160. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Experiment Station. 50 p. 
8. Bolton, Robert B., Jr.; Vogl, Richard J. 1969. Ecological requirements
of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa in the Santa Ana Mountains, California.
Journal of Forestry. 67: 112-116. 
9. Borchert, Mark. 1985. Serotiny and cone-habit variation in populations
of Pinus coulteri (Pinaceae) in the southern Coast Ranges of California.
Madrono. 32(1): 29-48. 
10. Borchert, Mark; Segotta, Daniel; Purser, Michael D. 1988. Coast redwood
ecological types of southern Monterey County, California. Gen. Tech.
Rep. PSW-107. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 27 p.
11. Bowler, Peter A. 1990. Riparian woodland: an endangered habitat in
southern California. In: Schoenherr, Allan A., ed. Endangered plant
communities of southern California: Proceedings, 15th annual symposium;
1989 October 28; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 3. Claremont,
CA: Southern California Botanists: 80-97. 
12. Burcham, L. T. 1974. Fire and chaparral before European settlement. In:
Rosenthal, Murray, ed. Symposium on living with the chaparral:
Proceedings; 1973 March 30-31; Riverside, CA. San Francisco, CA: The
Sierra Club: 101-120. 
13. Christensen, Norman L.; Muller, Cornelius H. 1975. Effects of fire on
factors controlling plant growth in Adenostoma chaparral. Ecological
Monographs. 45: 29-55. 
14. Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen,
Karen C. 1990. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands
National Park. Tech. Rep. No. 42. Davis, CA: University of California at
Davis, Institute of Ecology, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies
Unit. 93 p. 
15. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated
ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station. 86 p. 
16. Cook, Sherburne F., Jr. 1959. The effects of fire on a population of
small rodents. Ecology. 40(1): 102-108. 
17. Davis, Frank W.; Hickson, Diana E.; Odion, Dennis C. 1988. Composition
of maritime chaparral related to fire history and soil, Burton Mesa,
Santa Barbara County, California. Madrono. 35(3): 169-195. 
18. Davis, Frank W.; Keller, Edward A.; Parikh, Anuja; Florsheim, Joan.
1989. Recovery of the chaparral riparian zone after wildfire. In:
Protection, management, and restoration for the 1990's: Proceedings of
the California riparian systems conference; 1988 September 22-24; Davis,
CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-110. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station: 194-203. 
19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
20. Frost, William E. 1989. The Ellis Ranch project: a case study in
controlled burning. No. 891002. Fresno, CA: California Agricultural
Technology Institute and the San Joaquin Experimental Range. 11 p.
21. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
22. Gartner, Barbara L. 1991. Relative growth rates of vines and shrubs of
western poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (Anacardiaceae). American
Journal of Botany. 78(10): 1345-1353. 
23. Gartner, Barbara L; Thomas, Donald E. 1988. Vegetative propagation of
poison oak (California). Restoration & Management Notes. 6(1): 48-49.
24. Gordon, Aaron; Sampson, Arthur W. 1939. Composition of common California
foothill plants as a factor in range management. Bull. 627. Berkeley,
CA: University of California, College of Agriculture, Agricultural
Experiment Station. 95 p. 
25. Gray, M. Violet; Greaves, James M. 1984. Riparian forest as habitat for
the least Bell's vireo. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M.,
eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive
management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis,
CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 605-611. 
26. Hanes, Ted L. 1976. Vegetation types of the San Gabriel Mountians. In:
Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern
California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2.
Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 65-76. 
27. Hanes, Ted L. 1977. California chaparral. In: Barbour, Michael G.;
Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John
Wiley and Sons: 417-469. 
28. Hehnke, Merlin; Stone, Charles P. 1979. Value of riparian vegetation to
avian populations along the Sacramento River Sy. In: Johnson, R. Roy;
McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection
and management of floodplain wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc.
of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. General
Technical Report WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service: 228-235. v
29. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E. 1986. Plant association and
management guide: Siuslaw National Forest. R6-Ecol 220-1986a. Portland,
OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Region. 121 p. 
30. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. Plant
association and management guide: Willamette National Forest. R6-Ecol
257-B-86. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Region. 312 p. 
31. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of
California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.
32. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific
Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. 
33. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial
natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department
of Fish and Game. 156 p. 
37. Keeley, Jon E. 1987. Role of fire in seed germination of woody taxa in
California chaparral. Ecology. 68(2): 434-443. 
38. Kingsbury, John M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and
Canada. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 626 p. 
39. Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Hutchinson, C. F. 1977. The community composition of
Californian coastal sage scrub. Vegetatio. 35(1): 21-33. 
40. Kouakou, Brou; Rampersad, David; Rodriguez, Eloy; Brown, Dan L. 1992.
Dairy goats used to clear poison oak do not transfer toxicant to milk.
California Agriculture. 46(3): 4-6. 
41. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the
conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. 
42. McDonald, Philip M.; Laacke, Robert J. 1990. Pinus radiata D. Don
Monterey pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical
coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.
Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service: 433-441. 
43. McKee, Arthur. 1990. Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) A. DC. giant
chinkapin. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical
coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb.
654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:
44. McKell, Cyrus M.; Blaisdell, James P.; Goodin, Joe R., eds. 1972.
Wildland shrubs--their biology and utilization: An international
symposium; 1971 July; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-1. Ogden, UT: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and
Range Experiment Station. 494 p. 
45. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press. 1086 p. 
46. Pacific Northwest Extension Service. 1983. Poison oak and ivy. PNW 108.
Corvallis, OR; Pullman, WA; Moscow, ID. 2 p. 
47. Pase, Charles P. 1982. Californian (coastal) chaparral. In: Brown, David
E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and
Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 91-94. 
48. Quinn, Ronald D. 1990. The status of walnut forests and woodlands
(Juglans californica) in southern California. In: Schoenherr, Allan A.,
ed. Endangered plant communities of southern California: Proceedings,
15th annual symposium; 1989 October 28; Fullerton, CA. Special
Publication No. 3. Claremont, CA: Southern California Botanists: 42-54.
49. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
50. Rice, Carol. 1990. Restoration plays an integral role in fire hazard
reduction plan for the Berkeley Hills Area. Restoration & Management
Notes. 8(2): 125-126. 
51. Sabhasri, Sanga ; Ferrell, William K. 1960. Invasion of brush species
into small stand openings in the Douglas-fir forests of the Willamette
Foothills. Northwest Science. 34(3): 77-89. 
52. Sampson, Arthur W. 1944. Effect of chaparral burning on soil erosion and
on soil-moisture relations. Ecology. 25(2): 171-191. 
53. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range
brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California,
Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment
Station, Extension Service. 162 p. 
54. Scrivner, Jerry H.; Vaughn, Charles E.; Jones, Milton B. 1988. Mineral
concentrations of black-tailed deer diets in California chaparral.
Journal of Wildlife Management. 52(1): 37-40. 
55. Smith, Winston Paul. 1985. Plant associations within the interior
valleys of the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. Journal of Range Management.
38(6): 526-530. 
56. Stein, William I. 1980. Oregon white oak. In: Eyre, F. H. ., ed. Forest
cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of
American Foresters: 110-111. 
57. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern
Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. 
58. Thilenius, John F. 1968. The Quercus garryana forests of the Willamette
Valley, Oregon. Ecology. 49(6): 1124-1133. 
59. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California.
In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of
southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No.
2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. 
60. Timbrook, Jan. 1990. Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, based
on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany. 44(2): 236-253.
61. Tsiouvaras, C. N.; Havlik, N. A.; Bartolome, J. W. 1989. Effects of
goats on understory vegetation and fire hazard reduction in coastal
forest in California. Forest Science. 35(4): 1125-1131. 
62. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant
handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. 
63. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.
National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.
SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. 
64. Vogl, Richard J. 1973. Ecology of knobcone pine in the Santa Ana
Mountains, California. Ecological Monographs. 43: 125-143. 
65. Vogl, Richard J. 1976. An introduction to the plant communities of the
Santa Ana and San Jacinto Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium
proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4;
Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California
Native Plant Society: 77-98. 
66. Waring, R. H. 1969. Forest plants of the eastern Siskiyous: their
environment and vegetational distribution. Northwest Science. 43(1):
67. Westman, W. E.; O'Leary, J. F.; Malanson, G. P. 1981. The effects of
fire intensity, aspect and substrate on post-fire growth of Californian
coastal sage scrub. In: Margaris, N. S.; Mooney, H. A., eds. Components
of productivity of Mediterranean climate regions--basic and applied
aspects. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr W. Junk Pulishers: 151-179. 
68. Wirtz, W. O., II. 1982. Postfire community structure of birds and
rodents in southern California chaparral. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel,
Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on
dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June
22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station: 241-246. 
69. Zembal, Richard. 1990. Riparian habitat and breeding birds along the
Santa Margarita and Santa Ana Rivers of southern California. In:
Schoenherr, Allan A., ed. Endangered plant communities of southern
California: Proceedings, 15th annual symposium; 1989 October 28;
Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 3. Claremont, CA: Southern
California Botanists: 98-114. 
70. Wasser, Charles; Silva, F.; Rodriquez, E. 1990. Urushiol components as
mediators in DNA strand scission. Experientia. 46(5): 500-502. 
FEIS Home Page