Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): R.E. Kennedy; W.B. Cohen
    Date: 2003
    Source: International Journal of Remote Sensing. 24(17): 3467-3490
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: View PDF  (2.37 MB)


    Image-to-image registration requires identification of common points in both images (image tie-points: ITPs). Here we describe software implementing an automated, area-based technique for identifying ITPs. The ITP software was designed to follow two strategies: ( I ) capitalize on human knowledge and pattern recognition strengths, and (2) favour robustness in many situations over optimal performance in any one situation. We tested the software under several confounding conditions, representing image distortions, inaccurate user input, and changes between images. The software was robust to additive noise, moderate change between images, low levels of image geometric distortion, undocumented rotation, and inaccurate pixel size designation. At higher levels of image geometric distortion, the software was less robust, but such conditions are often visible to the eye. Methods are discussed for adjusting parameters in the ITP software to reduce error under such conditions. For more than 1600 tests, median time needed to identify each ITP was approximately 8s on a common image-processing computer system. Although correlation-based techniques--such as those implemented in the free software documented here have been criticized, we suggest that they may, in fact, be quite useful in many situations for users in the remote sensing community.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.B. 2003. Automated designation of tie-points for image-to-image coregistration. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 24(17): 3467-3490

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page