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Publication Details

TreeMap 2016: A tree-level model of the forests of the conterminous United States circa 2016 Data publication contains GIS data
Riley, Karin L.; Grenfell, Isaac C.; Finney, Mark A.; Shaw, John D.
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These data were collected using funding from the U.S. Government and can be used without additional permissions or fees. If you use these data in a publication, presentation, or other research product please use the following citation:
Riley, Karin L.; Grenfell, Isaac C.; Finney, Mark A.; Shaw, John D. 2021. TreeMap 2016: A tree-level model of the forests of the conterminous United States circa 2016. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive.
TreeMap 2016 provides a tree-level model of the forests of the conterminous United States. We matched forest plot data from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) to a 30x30 meter (m) grid. TreeMap 2016 is being used in both the private and public sectors for projects including fuel treatment planning, snag hazard mapping, and estimation of terrestrial carbon resources. We used a random forests machine-learning algorithm to impute the forest plot data to a set of target rasters provided by Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE: Predictor variables consisted of percent forest cover, height, and vegetation type, as well as topography (slope, elevation, and aspect), location (latitude and longitude), biophysical variables (photosynthetically active radiation, precipitation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and vapour pressure deficit), and disturbance history (time since disturbance and disturbance type) for the landscape circa 2016.

The main output of this project (the GeoTIFF included in this data publication) is a raster map of imputed plot identifiers at 30×30 m spatial resolution for the conterminous U.S. for landscape conditions circa 2016. In the attribute table of this raster, we also present a set of attributes drawn from the FIA databases, including forest type and live basal area. The raster map of plot identifiers can be linked to the FIA databases available through the FIA DataMart ( or to the text and SQL files included in this data publication to produce tree-level maps or to map other plot attributes. The accompanying database files included in this publication also contain attributes regarding the FIA plot CN (or control number, a unique identifier for each time a plot is measured), the subplot number, the tree record number, and for each tree: the status (live or dead), species, diameter, height, actual height (where broken), crown ratio, number of trees per acre, and a code for cause of death where applicable. The dataset has been validated for applications including percent live tree cover, height of the dominant trees, forest type, species of trees with most basal area, aboveground biomass, fuel treatment planning, and snag hazard. Because falling snags cause hazard to firefighting personnel and other forest users, in response to requests from the field, we provide a separate map that provides a rating of the severity of snag hazard based on the density and height of snags. Application of the dataset to research questions other than those for which it has been validated should be investigated by the researcher before proceeding. The dataset may be suitable for other applications and for use across various scales (stand, landscape, and region), however, the researcher should test the dataset's applicability to a particular research question before proceeding.

biota; environment; Ecology, Ecosystems, & Environment; Forest & Plant Health; Inventory, Monitoring, & Analysis; Natural Resource Management & Use; Conservation; Ecosystem services; Forest management; Restoration; Timber; Wilderness; Forest Inventory and Analysis; imputation; LANDFIRE; random forests; tree list; conterminous United States; CONUS
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